समस्याख्यानम् अवधानस्य प्रमुखेष्वङ्गेष्वन्यतममनन्यञ्च । अनर्था असङ्गतार्था वा काचन पद्यपङ्क्तिः कविसम्मुखे प्रक्षिप्यते या च तेन प्रत्यग्रप्रतिभया अर्थसङ्गतिर्यथा स्यात् तथा पूरणीया । अयं च काव्यप्रकारः चिरात् प्रथतेतरां वाङ्मयप्रपञ्चे । सोऽयं प्रकारो न केवलं संस्कृते, प्रत्युत बह्वीषु भारतीयभाषासु प्राप्तप्रतिष्ठो विराजति । विशेषतः चित्रकाव्यप्रकारेषु अमुष्य अग्रपूजा सर्वसम्मता । वात्स्यायनेन चतुःषष्ट्यां कलासु काव्यसमस्यापूरणम् अपि सन्दृब्धं विद्यते । भूयःसु च सङ्ग्रहग्रन्थेषु एतत्प्रकारकाणि पद्यानि उल्लिखितान्यलं विलोकितुम् । यथा, सुभाषितरत्नभाण्डागारे चित्रप्रकरणे समस्याख्यानाख्यो विभाग
विगतानि वर्गाक्षराणि यस्यामिति व्युत्पत्त्या यस्यां कवितायां कस्यचन वर्गविशेषस्य अक्षराणि यत्नेन वारितानि भवन्ति सा विवर्गाक्षरीति गीतमविगीतैर्विचक्षणैः । अनेनापि प्रकारेण निषिद्धाक्षरीविभागः शक्यो वर्तयितुम् । अत्र वर्गनिषेधो द्वेधा भवितुमर्हति यथा –
- कृत्स्ने पद्ये कस्यचन वर्गस्य निषेधः
- एकैकस्मिन् पादे एकैकस्य वर्गस्य निषेधः
तदेतदुभयमपि एकैकेनोदाहरणेन स्फुटीक्रियते –
1. विषयः – शिवः । निषिद्धवर्गः – पवर्गः । अवधानी – शतावधानी डा. आर्. गणेशः ।
The Nature of Sanskrit Drama
The word nāṭya originates from the dhātu naṭ, which happens to be a prākṛt form of the dhātu nṛt. Both the root words mean to ‘dance.’ Thus, the words nṛtta, nṛtya, nāṭya, and nāṭaka originate from the same root which means ‘to dance.’ Accordingly, all of them have elements connected with dance. Nevertheless, there are quite a few differences between them.
Nāṭaka has a special place in the world of Sanskrit literature. Indian aestheticians have always held that nāṭaka occupies the highest rung in the hierarchy of different genres of creative literature. Their view is, indeed, justified. Several forms of fine arts and performing arts undergo an aesthetic blend to give birth to a nāṭaka. The product is marvellous and transcends the sum of its components. From a historical perspective, we can say that nāṭaka is the final and the largest flower that blossomed in the floral bunch of Sanskrit literature.
India seems to be the only civilization that has philosophically contemplated upon the nature of Ānanda and realised it to be the ultimate outcome of art. Ānanda, which transcends time and space, is the untainted Joy evoked through art – this fundamental principle does not appear to have been expressed in clear terms in other civilizations. Additionally, the process of arriving at this – the prakriyā – is also not adequately delineated.
Phonetic languages have two major purposes – one is related to the realm of emotion (bhāvopayoga) and the other to the material world (bhavopayoga). We do not consider classical arts such as dance and music as media for communicating information. Spoken language, which is the medium of our everyday communication, is mostly expected to provide us with information, while the same phonetic language, taking the form of poetry and story becomes non-utilitarian.
While discussing about mārga and deśī, the author has brought much clarity in drawing the lines of distinction between the two, and at the same time showing their merging points. Clarity on these major concepts will throw much light in the works on re-construction of techniques. Also, the realisation that mārga becomes a vocabulary with which many languages as Deśī forms may emerge (all with respect to dance in this context), will be a big revelation. The following sentences are significant for this reason.
One of the most important contributions of the second edition is the article titled, ‘Aesthetics and Interconnectedness of the Daśa-rūpakas, Upa-rūpakas, and Nṛtya Traditions’.
This article is a very exhaustive one, both in terms of data and insights. This article gets a robust start with the analysis of the terms Anukaraṇa and Anukīrtana. This talks about the difference between classical arts and non-classical arts, between art becoming alaukika or remaining mundane and so on.