Arts

Reconstruction of the Mārga-karaṇa-s; the Pravṛtti-s and the Prākṛt-s

This article is an adapted version of the talk presented by Arjun Bharadwaj at the Swadeshi Indology Conference in December 2017

 

The following sections describe how Padma Subrahmanyam’s art presentations and research suggest the inclusive nature of sanātana-dharma and all regional variations as an integral part of the classical mārga tradition.

Dr.Padma Subrahmanyam’s Contributions to Indian values and National Integration in the Context of the Dravidian Movement

This article is an adapted version of the talk presented by Arjun Bharadwaj at the Swadeshi Indology Conference in December 2017

 

Abstract

 

The current paper attempts to explore the contributions of Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam, an artist and scholar, in the context of the Dravidian movement and her artistic rebuttal of the same.

Yakṣagāna – A Deśī Theatre Art - Part 4

Several people have the tendency to find parallels between Bhūtārādhana and Yakṣagāna. They classify Bhūtārādhana as ‘folk’ (Jānapadīya) and as a corollary, conclude that Yakṣagāna is ‘folk’ as well. However, Yakṣagāna’s allied forms of art such as Terukkūttu, Kūcupuḍi, Bhāgavatameḻa, Dūḍālapāya, Doḍḍāṭa and Keḻike are not influenced by Bhūtārādhana at all. Among these, one can say that only Kathakali has faint reflections of Bhūtakola in it. When this is the case, how can the argument that Yakṣagāna is also ‘folk’ be substantiated?

Yakṣagāna – A Deśī Theatre Art: Misconceptions – 3

In his insightful essay titled ‘Uparūpakas and Nāṭyaprabandhas’, Dr. V Raghavan classifies these (i.e., the lyrics/ scripts used for different theatrical/ Yakṣagāna-like presentations) as ‘Kāvya’ or ‘Citrakāvya’, a kind of Uparūpaka. (Refer –

[caption id="attachment_13946" align="alignleft" width="166"]Dr. V. Raghavan Dr. V. Raghavan[/caption]

Yakṣagāna – A Deśī Theatre Art: Misconceptions - 2

The word ‘Śāstra’ refers to a well-structured presentation with novel insights (Śaṃsana Śāsana-prajñā). Anything that has these characteristics can be said to be ‘Śāstrīya’. A Śāstra usually is in the form of a written set of rules as well as unwritten but traditional practises that come along with the community conciousness. Although folk forms of art might not conform to a set of written rules, they are the products of the tastes of people belonging to the particular community and have come down with time.

Yakṣagāna – A Deśī Theatre Art: Misconceptions

The terms ‘mārga’ and ‘deśī’ which have been in use for thousands of years in our tradition are today translated as ‘Classical’ and ‘Folk’ respectively, terms which hardly capture the original sense of the Sanskrit words. This equivalence was drawn by some western scholars and it is hard to say when exactly these were thought to be equivalents of the original Sanskrit words. The downfall and corruption of traditional knowledge systems of India has taken place because we have been taught to look at ourselves through the lens given by the West.

The World of Rasa – Aṣṭanāyikās

It is interesting to note that the Indian writers on the Kāma-śāstra classified the heroines as Padminī, Cittinī, Hastinī and Śaṅkinī, primarily based on their physical and sociological attributes. They were also categorised into svīyā, parakīyā and sādhāraṇā based on the same parameters. On the other hand, aestheticians who are well versed with the Nāṭya tradition of India classify the heroines based on their emotional states, which is subtler and more meaningful than the former. An actor, who is going to put on the role of a śṛṅgāra-nāyikā should keep these categories in mind.

“ಅಭಿನವಭಾರತಿ”ಯ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ವೈಶಿಷ್ಟ್ಯಗಳು—ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗೊಂಡ ಲೇಖಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಕೃತಿಗಳು, ಭಾಷೆ-ಶೈಲಿ

ಅಭಿನವಭಾರತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಗೊಂಡ ಲೇಖಕರು ಮತ್ತು ಕೃತಿಗಳು