Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi – Nature of the Text, Authorship Problems

This article is part 3 of 4 in the series Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi

3. Nature of the Text, Authorship Problems

In section 2.2 we have observed that Sāyaṇācārya stayed in Udayagiri and acted as the minister to Kampaṇa I and Saṅgama II during 1345–1365 CE, and that he shifted to Vijayanagara later. Saṅgama II ascended the throne in 1355 CE. Going by these details we infer that Sāyaṇācārya must have authored Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi during his stay at Udayagiri, perhaps after 1355 CE, close to 1365 CE.[1] After Saṅgama II took up the reins of administration himself, Sāyaṇācārya must have found more time for literary efforts than before. 

Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi consists of three chapters named unmeṣas.[2] The titles of the first two chapters are, respectively, kāvya-mārga-pratiṣṭhāpana and guṇībhūta-vyaṅgya-pratipādana. The first title is apt and representative; the second one, however, appears unfit, for guṇībhūta-vyaṅgya is not the primary subject that the chapter exposits. The third chapter deals with figures of speech and is incomplete – the text breaks off abruptly after upameyopamā.

The third chapter has a few interpolated verses in the section on citra-kāvya. These verses are culled from various works including Camatkāra-candrikā, Kāvya-prakāśa, Samudra-bandha’s commentary on Alaṅkāra-sarvasva, Devī-śataka and Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa. The bandhas illustrated here are: aṣta-dala-padma-bandha (three examples), ṣoḍaśa-dala-padma-bandha, khaḍga-bandha (two examples), cakra-bandha (two examples). We posit that these are indeed interpolated verses because: (1) Camatkāra-candrikā, a text from which a verse is quoted here, is of a later period, (2) these verses are different from those found in Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi – they neither praise Sāyaṇācārya nor relate to the Vijayanagara Empire.

The text comprises kārikās, vṛtti and udāharaṇa-padyas, as we have noted earlier. Upon a careful examination of the text we surmise that each of these was written by a different person, although the colophon clearly mentions Sāyaṇācārya as the author.

The author of the udāharaṇa-padyas is Bhoganātha, Sāyaṇācārya’s younger brother. He had previously written a text named Udāharaṇa-mālā, and the verses from this work constitute the bulk of illustrative verses in Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi.[3] A few verses are from other works of Bhoganātha: Tripura-vijaya, Gaurīnāthāṣṭaka, Rāmollāsa, Śṛṅgāra-mañjarī Mahā-gaṇapati-stava and Mūṣikāṣṭaka. (Another work, Gadya-cūḍāmaṇi, is mentioned only by name.) The illustrative verses typically describe various facets of Sāyaṇācārya’s personality. In Appendix 3 provided at the end of the book, we have grouped these verses under various headings that give an idea of the themes they describe –

Verses about Sāyaṇācārya: his scholarship, eloquence, respect for tradition, administrative acumen, regard for scholars, munificence, bravery and battle-skills, vignettes of his family life, physical appearance, love-life, fame and eminence, multifarious attainments. Other verses are based on: Saṅgama II, Sāyaṇācārya as Saṅgama II’s preceptor and the Saṅgama-Sāyaṇa duo.

These verses are invariably well-turned and are composed in a classical, idiomatic language. They eloquently testify Bhoganātha’s skill as an accomplished poet. He is one who can handle even the most challenging of metres with aplomb. His vocabulary is vast and usages, apt and appealing. Never does he dilly-dally with words. His expression gushes as a stream, bright and forceful, adorned by various figures of sound and sense. Because of such poetic talent Bhoganātha proved a worthy brother to his eminent elder siblings.[4]

Sāyaṇācārya is the indubitable author of the kārikās in this work, as evident from the colophon.[5] These expository verses are composed in the Anuṣṭup metre in the first chapter. In the second and third chapters, they are composed in various forms of the Āryā metre. Most of the Anuṣṭup-kārikās are metrically flawless and elucidate the subject-matter in a straightforward manner, unburdened by pedantry. However, the Āryā-kārikās are at some places metrically flawed and somewhat intractable. The author has mixed up several varieties of Āryā such as Gīti, Upa-gīti and Āryā-gīti, and has composed verses that have an indefinite syllabic count in each line, which flout the standard rules of mātrā and gaṇa. Scribal errors have also contributed to the metrical flaws. There is yet another reason for these errors: in the section on rasa-bhāvas in the second chapter, the author has relied on Daśa-rūpaka for his exposition – he has tried to compose in the Āryā metre what the author of Daśa-rūpaka had expressed in Anuṣṭup. Many flaws have crept in in the process of this prosodic transformation.

Coming to the vṛtti, we opine that neither Sāyaṇācārya nor Bhoganātha is its author. It could not have been Bhoganātha, because several passages in the vṛtti refer to him in the third person[6] and, more importantly, there is a stark difference in style between the illustrative verses and vṛtti. Nor could Sāyaṇācārya be the author, because a person of his stature and eminence would not be so vain as to include illustrative verses praising himself. Besides, the vṛtti, especially in the second chapter, is nothing like the stately prose we find in Sāyaṇācārya’s other works such as Dhātu-vṛtti and Vedārtha-prakāśa. It also contains a few grammatical flaws as we have observed in section 1. These factors lead us to agree with D C Sarasvati’s observation that “a later writer must have brought these kārikās and illustrations together with his connecting prose vṛtti.”[7] A couple of broken verses at the beginning of the text provide a hint to this effect.[8]

Sāyaṇācārya must have composed the kārikās and entrusted one of his student-collaborators to compose the vṛtti and substantiate it with suitable examples. This student-collaborator harboured great respect for Sāyaṇācārya and thought it fit to include illustrative verses that paint a complete picture of his mentor’s many-splendoured personality. He perhaps even consulted Bhoganātha and sought his permission to use his verses. In all likelihood he was inspired by writers such as Vidyādhara and Vidyānātha who heralded the ‘praśasti’ type of works. A major point of difference between such works and Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi is that the former typically eulogize their patron, whereas the latter praises the author himself. In this respect the present work stands unique.

There might be several reasons for Sāyaṇācārya’s entrusting his work to another person. He had to discharge ministerial responsibilities and was actively engaged in war. He had to focus on the young, inexperienced king and guide him at every step. Besides, in the mid-1360s he was invited to Vijayanagara to spearhead the mammoth scholarly endeavour called Vedārtha-prakāśa. After his departure from Udayagiri Sāyaṇācārya probably had no time to revisit Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi, revise it and bring it to final shape. This is why the text as it stands now appears patchy at places.

 

4. Analysis and Appraisal of Contents

4.1. Résumé of Contents

4.1.1. First Unmeṣa

Benedictory verses; objectives of kāvya; importance of kāvya; rasānanda vis-à-vis brahmānanda; import and uniqueness of kāvya; requisites of a poet – śakti and vyutpatti; three kinds of vyutpattiloka-vṛtta-jñāna, śāstra-vṛtta-jñāna and abhyāsa; significance of reading master poets such as Kālidāsa; salience of a poet; poet’s stature compared to Brahmā, the Creator; praise of kāvya.

Summary of the principal theories of Sanskrit Poetics expounded by Bhāmaha, Vāmana, Kuntaka, Bhaṭṭa-nāyaka, Ānandavardhana and Mahima-bhaṭṭa; primacy of Ānandavardhana’s position; three kinds of poetry – uttama (dhvani), madhyama (guṇībhūta-vyaṅgya) and adhama (citra); two kinds of citra śabda and artha; significance of dhvani; pre-eminence of rasa; all poetic tenets relate to and sub-serve rasa; guṇa and doṣa; sub-divisions in the three kinds of poetry.

4.1.2. Second Unmeṣa

Three forms of śabda vācaka, lakṣaka and vyañjaka; three forms of artha vācya, lakṣya and vyaṅgya; three vṛttis – abhidhā, lakṣaṇā and vyañjanā (no tātparya); varieties of lakṣaṇā rūḍhi and phala; seven forms of phala-lakṣaṇā.

Two primary varieties of vyañjanā agūḍha (guṇībhūta) and gūḍha (dhvani); vyañjanā distinguished from abhidhā and lakṣaṇā; two main categories of dhvani avivakṣita-vācya and vivakṣita-anyapara-vācya; sub-divisions in these categories; vyañjaka-sāmagrī and its varieties; illustrations of various forms of dhvani; dhvani distinguished from tātparya and anumāna; eight forms of asaṃlakṣya-krama-vyaṅgyarasa, bhāva, rasābhāsa, bhāvābhāsa, bhāvodaya, bhāva-sandhi, bhāva-śabalatā and bhāva-śānti.

Explanation of rasa-sūtra; illustrations of vibhāva and anubhāva; primacy of Abhinavagupta’s views; the nature of rasa; eight rasas are accepted in dṛśya-kāvya (śānta-rasa is restricted to śravya-kāvya); illustrations of sthāyi-bhāvas; illustrations of sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicāri-bhāvas; rasa is always vyaṅgya

Śṛṅgāra and its accessories; three forms of śṛṅgāra nava-yoga, viprayoga and sambhoga; ten śṛṅgāra-avasthās – abhilāṣa, cintā, smṛti, guṇa-kathana, udvega, pralapita, unmāda, jvara, jaḍatā and maraṇa; two forms of viprayoga māna and pravāsa; means to assuage māna; three primary varieties of a nāyikā mugdhā, madhyā and pragalbhā; sub-varieties of these; causes for pravāsa-viprayoga; three kinds of pravāsa yāsyat, gacchat and gata; difference between śṛṅgāra and karuṇa; ten śṛṅgāra-ceṣṭās – līlā, vilāsa, vibhrama, kilikiñcita, lalita, vikṛta, bibboka, moṭṭāyita, kuṭṭamita and vicchitti; further varieties of a nāyikā svādhīna-bhartṛkā, vāsakasajjā, virahotkaṇṭhitā, khaṇḍitā, kalahāntaritā, vipralabdhā (vimānitā), proṣita-patikā and abhisārikā.

Definitions and illustrations of bhāvas.

Hāsya-rasa; its two varieties – ātmastha and parastha; kinds of hāsa smita, hasita, upahasita and apahasita.

Vīra-rasa; its three varieties – raṇa-vīra, dāna-vīra and dayā-vīra.

Bībhatsa-rasa; its three varieties – kṣobhaṇa, śuddha and udvejaka.

Bhayānaka-rasa; its two varieties – raudra-śravaṇaja and raudra-sattva-darśanaja.

Raudra-rasa; its two varieties – matsara-kṛta-krodha-paripoṣa-rūpa and virodhi-vaikṛta-kṛta.

Karuṇa-rasa; its three varieties – stemming from iṣṭa-nāśa, aniṣṭa-kāra and niyantraṇādyāpti.

Mutual compatibility or otherwise of rasas.

Śānta-rasa found only in śravya-kāvya; causes of śānta.

Differences among rati, prīti and bhakti.

Rasābhāsa and bhāvābhāsa.

Saṃlakṣya-krama-vyaṅgya; its three varieties – based on śabda-śakti, artha-śakti and both; sub-divisions in these.

Guṇībhūta-vyaṅgya and its varieties; rasavat, preyas, ūrjasvī and samāhita.

Varieties of dhvani are innumerable.

4.1.3. Third Unmeṣa

Citra-kāvya; its two forms – śabda and artha; six varieties of śabdālaṅkāra vakrokti, anuprāsa, yamaka, śleṣa, citra and punaruktavad-ābhāsa.

Importance of vakrokti; its varieties – kāku-vakrokti and śleṣa-vakrokti; three kinds of anuprāsa chekānuprāsa, vṛttyanuprāsa (upanāgarikā, grāmyā) and lāṭānuprāsa (and its three varieties); yamaka and its varieties; śleṣa; its eight varieties – varṇa, pada, liṅga, bhāṣā, prakṛti, pratyaya, vibhāga and vacana; citra khaḍga-bandha, muraja-bandha, sarvatobhadra-bandha and cakra-bandha; punaruktavad-ābhāsa; its three varieties – sabhaṅga, abhaṅga and śabdāśrya; (interpolated verses of the citra type).

Arthālaṅkāra; upamā; its two varieties – pūrṇā and luptā; two varieties of pūrṇā śrautī and ārthī; sub-varieties of these – in vākya, samāsa and taddhita; nineteen variants of luptā.

Ananvaya; upameyopamā.

As we have noted at the beginning of this Introduction, Sāyaṇācārya mainly follows Mammaṭa in his exposition and adheres to the aesthetic vision of Ānandavardhana. Consequently, Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi either borrows from these authors or echoes their views at several instances. As in the case of his other works in the ‘Sudhānidhi’ series, Sāyaṇācārya’s main intention is to consolidate knowledge in as unadulterated a form as possible, and not necessarily to present novel ideas. This has shaped the present text as a compendium.



[1] The colophon of the present text mentions Bukkarāya as the monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire: श्रीमत्पूर्वपश्चिमदक्षिणोत्तरसमुद्राधिपतिबुक्कराजप्रथमदेशिकमाधवाचार्यानुजन्मनः।

This clearly indicates that Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi was authored during Bukkarāya’s reign, which began in 1355 CE.

[2] At one place the vṛtti uses the word ullāsa

[3] प्रागेव प्रभुमुद्दिश्य चाटुश्लोका य ईरिताः। उदाहरणमालायां त एवात्रापि योजिताः॥ (1.6)

[4] Some illustrative verses have flouted the rules of yati and are therefore jarring to read. Examples include: Hariṇī – “व्यपदिशति ते बाह्यं श्रीसा*यणार्य कुलं द्विषाम्”, “विघटयति तद्वाक्ये विस्र*म्भभावमपह्नवे”। Śārdūlavikrīḍita – “पादाग्रे पतनं मुहुः प्रणयको*पेक्षा च पर्वक्रमात्”, “नासावन्मनुजाग्निमारुतमव*न्ध्याग्नेयमन्तर्मनः”।

[5] श्रीमत्सायणामात्यस्य कृतावलङ्कारसुधानिधौ।

[6] तेषामुदाहरणानि भोगनाथकाव्येषु द्रष्टव्यानि।

भोगनाथविरचिते गौरीनाथाष्टके।

भोगनाथभक्तिभावप्रतिपादनपरे।

नायिकासखीसमावर्जनरूपं नायकस्य तत्प्रियसखस्य भोगनाथादेर्वचनमिदम्।

श्रीभोगनाथविरचितेषु गद्यचूडामणिप्रभृतिषून्नेयाः।

[7] Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi Attributed to Sāyaṇa, p. 277

[8] …रसाश्चार्थसङ्ग्रहे [सा]यणप्रभोः॥1.4 आज्ञया व्याक्रियन्तेऽर्था अलङ्कारसुधानि[धौ]॥ 1.5

 

References

 

  1.     A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras (Vol. 22; Ed. Kuppuswami Sastri, S). Madras: Superintendent, Government Press, 1918
  2.     Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore, 1908
  3.     Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore, 1914–15
  4.     Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore: University of Mysore, 1933
  5.     Beginnings of Vijayanagara History. Heras, Henry. Bombay: Indian Historical Research Institute, 1929
  6.     Contribution of Andhra to Sanskrit Literature. Sriramamurti, P. Waltair: Andhra University, 1972
  7.     Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts (Vol. VIII; Ed. Malledevaru, H P). Mysore: Oriental Research Institute, 1982
  8.     Early Vijayanagara: Studies in its History and Culture (Proceedings of S. Srikantaya Centenary Seminar; Ed. Dikshit, G S). Bangalore: BMS Memorial Foundation, 1988
  9.     Epigraphia Carnatica (Vol. 6; Ed. Rice, Lewis B). Mysore Archaeological Series, 1901
  10.     Epigraphia Indica (Vol. 3; Ed. Hultzsch, E). Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1979 (Reprint)
  11.     History of Sanskrit Poetics (2 volumes). De, Sushil Kumar.  Calcutta: Firma K L Mukhopadhyay, 1960
  12.     History of Sanskrit Poetics. Kane, P V. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1971
  13.     Jayadāman. Ed. Velankar, H D. Bombay: Haritosha Samiti, 1949
  14.     Karnāṭakadalli Smārta-brāhmaṇaru: Nele-Hinnele (Kannada; Ed. Anantharamu, T R). Bengaluru: Harivu Books, 2023
  15.     Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda-taittirīya-saṃhitā (with Sāyaṇa-bhāṣya). Pune: Ananda Ashram, 1900
  16.     Mādhavīyā Dhātuvṛtti (Ed. Shastri, Dwarikadas). Varanasi: Prachya Bharati Prakashana, 1964
  17.     Mysore Gazetteer (Vol. 2, Part 3; Ed. Rao, Hayavadana C). Delhi: B R Publishing Corporation, 1927–30
  18.     New Catalogus Catalogorum (Vol. 1; Ed. Raghavan, V). University of Madras, 1968
  19.     Pañcadaśī-pravacana (Kannada). Sharma, Ranganatha N. K R Nagar: Vedanta Bharati, 2003
  20.     Parāśarasmṛtiḥ (with Mādhavācārya’s commentary; Ed. Candrakānta Tarkālaṅkāra). Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1974
  21.     Puruṣārtha-sudhānidhi (Ed. Chandrasekharan, T). Madras: Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 1955
  22.     Sayana. Modak, B R. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1995
  23.     South Indian Inscriptions (Vol. 4; Ed. Sastri, Krishna H). Madras: The Superintendent, Government Press, 1923
  24.     Subhāṣita-sudhānidhi (Ed. Krishnamoorthy, K). Dharwar: Karnatak University, 1968
  25.     Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa (Vol. 3; Ed. Godbole, Shastri Narayana). Pune: Ananda Ashram, 1979
  26.     Uttankita Sanskrit Vidya-Aranya Epigraphs (Vol. 1, Vidyaranya). Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1985
  27.     Vibhūti-puruṣa Vidyāraṇya (Kannada). Ganesh, R. Hubli: Sahitya Prakashana, 2011
  28.     Vidyāraṇyara Samakālīnaru (Kannada). Gundappa, D V. Hubli: Sahitya Prakashana, 2023

To be continued.

 

Author(s)

About:

Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.

About:

Shashi Kiran B N holds a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and a master's degree in Sanskrit. His interests include Indian aesthetics, Hindu scriptures, Sanskrit and Kannada literature and philosophy.

Prekshaa Publications

Among the many contributions of ancient Indians to world thought, perhaps the most insightful is the realisation that ānanda (Bliss) is the ultimate goal of human existence. Since time immemorial, India has been a land steeped in contemplation about the nature of humans and the universe. The great ṛṣis (seers) and ṛṣikās (seeresses) embarked on critical analysis of subjective experience and...

One of the two great epics of India and arguably the most popular epic in the world, the Ramayana has enchanted generations of people not just in Greater India but the world over. In less than three hundred pages The Essential Ramayana captures all the poetic subtleties and noble values of the original and offers the great epic in an eminently readable form that will appeal to the learned and...

The Bhagavad-gītā isn’t merely a treatise on ultimate liberation. It is also a treatise on good living. Even the laity, which does not have its eye on mokṣa, can immensely benefit from the Gītā. It has the power to grant an attitude of reverence in worldly life, infuse enthusiasm in the execution of duty, impart fortitude in times of adversity, and offer solace to the heart when riddled by...

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...

Yaugandharam

इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...

Vanitakavitotsavah

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Vaiphalyaphalam

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Nipunapraghunakam

इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।

Bharavatarastavah

अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...

Bharatilochana

ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...

Vagarthavismayasvadah

“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...