Tradition of Kshaatra in India: Unbridled Barbarianism of Alauddin Khilji and Timur

A Muslim could silence a Hindu as per whim and hurl abuses on him without any repercussions. And as for a Hindu, he had to quietly swallow all humiliation without showing the slightest resentment. Ibn Batuta writes, "After defeating and destroying a king, one has to get the queen and the princesses to sing and dance in a filled assembly; and whoever desires them, they must be given away." He says that it was a common feature of Islamic imperialism to torture the common women and children and also share them with all the Muslim men publicly.

The Lush Expanse of the Rashtrakuta Empire

The name Nrpatunga has a pre-eminent place in the hearts of the Kannada people. He has gained such fame because of the treatise Kavirajamarga, which he composed along with Srivijaya. Although he was a great warrior imbued with the brilliance of kshaatra, he knew how to manage the kingdom in a balanced manner during peacetime. Indeed, his royal clan was renowned for kshaatra. The Rashtrakuta kings defeated the Kannauj rulers on several occasions and brought back treasures and gifts. The historian Dr.

The Splendid Grandeur of the Vijayanagara Empire

And now we can turn our focus towards the Vijayanagara Empire which was ruled by the four royal dynasties of Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva, and Aravidu. Among these, we can observe the fact that the Vijayanagara Empire had attained its zenith under the regime of the Sangama and Tuluva dynasties. The Vijayanagara Empire assumes significance due to its direct confrontation and fight against Muslim rulers. Till then, wars were being fought between Hindu kings.