The Finale: DVG's Unforgiving Assessment of Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon

This article is part 44 of 57 in the series Life and Legacy of DVG

This political reorganization of India meant redrawing the map of India by erasing old boundaries and creating new ones on the basis of the widely familiar reasoning: language. As we have noted earlier, this reasoning had its origins in the Nehru Report of 1928. However, in practice, this meant the erasure of the centuries’-long unwritten cultural and local customs, usages, traditions, and norms in the 562 Princely States. In other words, the linguistic reorganization of independent India was accomplished by slaughtering countless cultural strands that had invisibly strung the society together as a functioning, cohesive whole. As a direct consequence, thousands of art forms, crafts, festivals, practices, and other unifying bonds vanished in less than half a century. On the political plane, this aggressive implementation of India’s political reorganization annihilated the well-oiled political institutions that had survived not only the successive waves of Islamic invasions and regimes but had withstood even the shocks of British colonial rule. From Rajasthan to Bengal, from Haryana to Tamil Nadu, this unbroken political system originating from say, the Mauryan period, was undone in one brutal stroke. For a majestic and detailed exposition of this subject, the iconic Dharampal’s Panchayat Raj and India’s Polity is an invaluable source work.   

A week prior to Nehru’s aforementioned interview with Daily Mail, New Delhi had launched another missile in the form of the Nehru-Patel-Pattabhi Report on Linguistic Provinces dated 5 April 1949. DVG immediately published[1] his unreserved contempt for it, which needs to be quoted at some length.

The…Report observes:-­“Kerala and Karnataka Provinces can be brought about not by a merger of the present Provincial areas into the States, but by the reverse process and must entail the virtual disappearance of these States…”

What is “virtual disappearance” as distinguished from disappearance simple and unqualified? Will any vestige of the erstwhile statehood be left behind? If so, why so?... it is unfortunate in the extreme that the dangerous undesirability of keeping the people of the States…on tenterhooks did not occur to the minds of our illustrious leaders.     


The half-century-history of India after Independence is just one massive lump of the history of unrest. The appalling civil war during the partition is still a festering wound and a Brobdingnagian memory because of the engulfing scale of its violence and tragedy. However, the recurrent clashes, strife, death and destruction in what remained of the original India throughout the period from 1947 up to 1993 is comparable in number—if not intensity—to the partition. We could go a step further and claim that India has never known a decade of peace since it attained political freedom. In many ways, this is what V.S. Naipaul referred to when he spoke of India as a land of a million mutinies.

Apart from the calculated violence unleashed by the Communists, the initial roots of this unrest arguably lie in the reorganization of states. The “illustrious leaders” that DVG refers to had unwittingly created a two-headed monster. On the one hand, the smash-and-grab action by the States’ Ministry left a trail of discontent, protests and violence in various Princely States. On the other, the linguistic scheme birthed an even bloodier consequence: large-scale riots citizens that threatened to hurl the new republic into instability.

We can briefly examine both these aspects.

The journalist in DVG reports[2] how this diarchic system of Delhi did not have the “complete approval of the whole population” in the Princely States. For example, the unilateral dissolution of the Princely States of Baroda, Bikaner, Cochin, Travancore and Pudukottah (Pudukottai) resulted in protests throughout these lands. Then he notes how trouble had also started in “Vindhya and Matsya[3] regions, and how underground activity had begun in “Madhya…and Greater Rajasthan…far too great to be able to live in comfort…explosive ingredients are forcibly huddled up in its womb.” Thus, it surprises DVG that Sardar Patel is unaware of all these disturbances when he declares the exact opposite. According to Patel, the high-handed appropriation of Baroda, Bikaner, Travancore, etc was “the unanimous wish of the…States!” DVG is not[4] fooled.

This shows that the Sardar would like the public to believe that the States Ministry is keeping an open mind and would be ready to take guidance from public opinion…so much of open propagandizing by V.P. Menon!...Things achieved by coups have, however, a way of turning into fiascos when not supported by the deeper facts of the situation. Among such facts are the long-established geographical loyalties of men and the physical conditions and…peculiarities of the areas…

The States Ministry’s ostentation of concern…for the Princes and the States…[reminds]…one an ancient Nyaya (analogic maxim): Alamkritya Shirashchhedah: “The animal to be offered in sacrifice should first be painted with saffron, bedecked with flowers and worshipped...”

A man under sentence of death is not the man to be expected to put himself in the mood of valuing his life and planning for its development.

The sorry finale of the Princely States was reached in 1956 when these individual States as well as the system of voluntary unions of states (for example, the Chamber of Princes) was thoroughly dismantled and the position of Rajpramukh was abolished. A long and hoary tradition of Rajarshis like the Mysore Wodeyars, the Maharajas of Baroda and other truly enlightened rulers had, overnight, become subservient to a faceless democracy which in practice meant that they had to now bow down to Congress ministers and party leaders whose only distinction was Gandhian opportunism. The new states that were created along linguistic and ethnic lines on the rubble and the graves of the Princely States tore apart the traditional ties that had existed in the former Princely States.

Border disputes and linguistic fanaticism became the New Indian Order.

And so, when we examine the second head of the aforementioned monster, history shows us that it was rigidly malevolent in its impatience and stubbornly intractable in its demand. In reality, the demand for linguistic reorganization translated into political blackmail on the ground owing to a complex and noxious mix of opportunism, fanaticism, and vested interests. The British author, Michael Edwardes provides a highly incisive and riveting analysis[5] of this sorry chapter of recent Indian history.

The boundaries created by integration of princely states with the old provinces of British India were generally assumed to be temporary. The essential criterion had been speedy integration not rationalization… A commission of inquiry was set up and delivered its opinions at the end of 1948. The commission’s view was that things should be left as they were. The provinces of British India had the sanction of the years. It was recognized that the old boundaries contained dominant linguistic groups…No new boundaries could remedy this. The commission most strongly criticized the creation of linguistic states on the grounds that they would inspire linguistic and therefore local patriotisms which would inhibit the growth of a national consciousness

Sardar Patel’s death drastically altered the situation. Jawaharlal Nehru was now the unchallenged Caesar of both the Indian Government and the Congress Party. After the phenomenal victory of the Congress in the 1951 general elections, rumblings began in the Madras State. The then Chief Minister’s differences with “Lion of Andhra” Tangaturi Prakasam erupted into clashes between Tamil and Telugu speakers which soon manifested itself as a demand for a separate state for Telugu speakers.

Nehru’s government was in a bind: the Congress poll manifesto of 1951 had explicitly stated that “on the matter of states reorganisation, the democratic right of the people to express their opinion would be taken into consideration.” But now since the demand had been made, all that Nehru could muster on the weight of the aforementioned commission’s report was to thunder that he would “not be intimidated by such tactics.” But Potti Sriramulu, the well-respected leader of the Telugu people followed the Gandhian model and launched a fast unto death until a separate Telugu state was “given.” Not cowed down, Nehru roared that he would not “yield to blackmail.” But Potti Sriramulu actually died and Nehru’s bravado evaporated. He did an overnight volte face, declaring[6] in Parliament that Sriramulu’s sacrifice was exemplary.

[Nehru’s] speech was an open invitation to extra-democratic pressure…it seemed to underline his capitulation to violence…Nehru personally attended the inauguration of the new state of Andhra in October 1953. The message was immediately read by other special-interest groups — the Government was susceptible to mass agitation…Pressure built up so rapidly that less than three months after…the formation of Andhra, the Government announced the appointment of a States Reorganization Commission.   

The Commission submitted its report in October 1955. In its wake, widespread rioting and violence followed in Orissa, Bengal, Bihar, Bombay, Ahmedabad and Punjab. This, in a span less than a decade after India achieved Independence and was supposedly “united” politically. The first of a long series of language wars among Indians had begun. Tamil Nadu of course, stands as the most extreme example of this linguistic chauvinism.

The essence of this longish discussion is to underscore the fact that this multi-pronged internal disruptions after independence was the direct outcome of ignoring the warnings of stalwarts like DVG who had foreseen all these decades ago.

It can be reasonably argued that but for Sardar Patel’s hasty and maladroit measures in integrating the States, Indira Gandhi wouldn’t have gotten the confidence to virtually bulldoze whatever remained of the power and wealth of the Princes into despotic submission. This is not to unfairly belittle Patel by comparing him to Indira Gandhi, but as DVG says, to place his overall legacy in an objective context. This point gains greater clarity when we read the melancholic epilogue that Dr. S.L. Bhyrappa offers on the fate of the Princes under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In his fine autobiography, Bhitti, Dr. Bhyrappa vividly narrates how Congress leaders would routinely mooch off the Princes, treating their estates and palaces as their Congress-bestowed fiefdom, drinking copious amounts of expensive foreign liquor, and helping themselves to lavish banquets and various other forms of costly entertainment. In scores of cases, the Princes were forced to borrow enormous sums to fund these junkets. In others, some Princes had truly fallen into penury and maintained only a façade, just to keep up the pretensions of a royalty that an impulsive democracy had annexed. But in all cases, they had no alternative: their refusal to fund the neo-democratic plunderers would mean their literal ejection to the streets, something that was accomplished during the Emergency.

Finally, the Sardar’s indomitable will won the day but one-third of India’s landmass and one-fourth of its inhabitants that had sustained its unbroken cultural heritage and was largely insulated from the “Brown sahib” outlook towards life lost both territorial belongingness and its cultural inheritance. This is DVG’s unforgiving assessment[7] of this Patelesque finale.

In the end, what united the Princely States and British India was not the efforts of the Rajas and Maharajas. Neither was it the efforts of their subjects. It was the haughty blow delivered by the Congressites who had come to power. Mainly, it was Vallabhbhai Patel’s arrogant attitude. In reality, it did not occur in a smooth fashion that had the consent of both parties…Patel did not think that the patient and contentious path of due process was appropriate. Neither did he require it.

The wife’s phlegm-filled flu had enveloped her head. Fury had consumed the husband’s hand. When both clashed, the vexed problem profusely dripped down the nose…The diamond-studded nose-ring has been permanently lost in a rush to get rid of the dirt in the nose.

Did Princely States ever exist in India? The fact that this question is even being asked shows the extent to which they have been deformed and liquidated. If this was not enough, the regional borders that had existed for centuries on end have been chaotically littered under the guile of linguistic brotherhood. The old attachment to one’s local geography has been shattered. The new feeling of regional-love has remained elusive. The root of a Princely State as an institution is a kind of affectionate bond. Today, it has no place. While everybody is eager to grab the benefits of such an institution, nobody wants the quiet contemplation that births such an institution.

DVG’s assessment is akin to the Congress and Sardar Patel making a cruel mockery of not only his three-decade-long labours at achieving a smooth merger and harmonious transition but of this profound verse of Mankutimmana Kagga:

koḍugallanu hatti dūravanu noḻpaṃge ।
goḍegottugaḻenu? meḍu kuḻiyenu? ॥
noḍu nīnunnatadi niṃtu janajīvitava ।
māḍudārada manava - maṃkutimma ॥ 801 ॥
The one who climbs up the hill and looks far
Cannot make out the details of walls, gardens, holes.
Stand aloft and view the life of people where
Petty differences in people don't matter anymore.
Expand your mind, accommodate magnanimity – Mankutimma


[1] D.V.Gundappa: Working of the States Ministry, Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No 4, April 1949, p 26. Emphasis in the original.

[2] D.V.Gundappa: Working of the States Ministry, Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No 4, April 1949, pp 29-30.

[3]  This region comprised the States of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Alwar and Karauli.

[4] D.V.Gundappa: Working of the States Ministry, Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No 4, April 1949, pp 29-31.

[5] Michael Edwardes. Nehru: A Biography, Allen Lane, 1962, p 250. Emphasis added.

[6] Ibid. pp 252-3. Emphasis added.

[7] D V Gundappa: Rajyashastra, Rajyanga—DVG Kruti Shreni: Volume 5 (Govt of Karnataka, 2013) p 643. Translated into English by Sandeep Balakrishna. Emphasis added.




Sandeep Balakrishna is a writer, author, translator, and socio-political-cultural analyst. He is the author of "Tipu Sultan: The Tyrant of Mysore" and "The Madurai Sultanate: A Concise History." He translated Dr. S L Bhyrappa's magnum opus "Avarana" into English.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...