Upanayana – Sandhyāvandana

The daily worship of the sun is called Sandhyā.[1] The word ‘sandhyā’ literally means ‘twilight’ but also indicates the prayer performed during the morning and evening twilight.[2] This act of adoration to the sun is generally styled ‘sandhyopāsana’ or ‘sandhyāvandana’ or simply ‘sandhyā.’[3] The word ‘sandhyā’ can also mean ‘the junction between night and day

Cosmogony – in the Perspective of Ayurveda

Ayurveda, being a medical science, does not consider cosmology as one of its central preoccupations. Vagbhata’s Ashtanga-Hrdayam, which contains the definitive summary of classical Ayurveda, makes not even a passing reference to cosmological theories.

Elaborate references to these theories, based mostly upon the Sankhya system, may however be found in the texts of Charaka and Sushruta. These theories owe their presence in these texts to two major reasons:

Upanayana in the Sūtras and the Smṛtis

It was in the Sūtra period that the upanayana saṃskāra seems to have been fully established.[1] Most of the details of the ceremony are laid out in the gṛhya-sūtras. The Dharma-sūtras and Smṛtis have nothing new to say about the ritualistic aspects apart from what has already been said earlier; they primarily develop the social side of the saṃskāra. It was also perhaps during this period that the Upanayana became compulsory for men from the first three varṇas.