The Hinduism Series: Sanatana Dharma from Scratch - 2

This article is part 3 of 6 in the series The Hinduism Series

This is the second part of the article, Sanatana Dharma from Scratch by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh, discussing about several fundamental aspects of Hinduism.

Rta, Rna, Dharma

True value realization takes us closer to the Vedic concept of ऋत (rta). The word rta has no equivalent in English but can loosely be translated as ‘cosmic order in the universe,’ ‘divine law governing the universe,’ or ‘gnostic order that is inherent in the universe.’ The word rta is derived from the root word ‘r’ which means ‘dynamism,’ ‘vibrancy,’ ‘seasoning,’ and ‘belongingness.’ In the Vedas, rta is often held supreme. The Vedic god Varuṇa identified with water and the oceans is frequently referred to as the protector of rta. The symbolism of water and the ocean in connection with rta is profound. In Rigveda and Arthavaveda, it is said that the law behind existence is rta and to tamper with it will prove deadly. The whole of creation is called sat and it has an inbuilt cosmic law, rta. If sat (existence) is a fact, then the value which we realize out of it is rta (cosmic law). When we realize rta, the value of the whole of creation, we are humbled and naturally become more caring towards the universe. The entire universe supports our sustenance and the whole of creation toils for our existence.

This awareness infuses immense gratitude in our hearts. This indebtedness—akin to guilt but without the negativity—that arises in a sensitive mind is called ऋण (rna). (In common parlance, the word rna refers to be in debt – of a physical, monetary kind.) The contention of the Vedas is that every human being by birth carries this baggage of rna. This baggage is not something mystical but rather straightforward. Every birth is a miracle – the entire universe conspires to make it happen. Therefore, it is an unwritten duty to clear this debt to the universe. Without this, one will not have achieved his or her life’s purpose. Those who ignore the debts they are born into are merely breathing, not alive.

The way to clear this debt is by adhering to dharma. Thus, the awareness of rta leads to the realization of rna, which in turn motivates one to pursue dharma.

Yajna, Dana, Tapas

Having realized that adherence to dharma is the ideal way to live, the question arises: how to practice it? The action plan of dharma is given in the pedagogy of yajna, dana, and tapas.

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Yajna is a specific term for the Vedic fire ritual. In general, it refers to worship of any form. Metaphorically, yajna refers to ‘an act of self-dedication,’ ‘service above self,’ or ‘respecting the divine presence.’ The word yajna comes from the root word yaj, which means ‘respect,’ ‘belongingness,’ and ‘sharing.’ Respect cannot last without a sense of belonging and this belongingness is not feasible without selfless offering.

There is a beautiful story in the Vedas that will illuminate the true meaning of yajna:

The asuras (demons) – the elder brothers of the suras (deities) – went to their father Prajapati, the creator, and complained bitterly that they were often humiliated in comparison to their more illustrious younger brothers. They urged their father to find a solution to this problem and give them a better place. The great god Prajapati smiled and said, “O my children, you don’t know the essence of yajna and you don’t practice it even a bit. That is the reason you are compared with the suras and contemptuously dismissed by the wise.” Needless to say, the asuras disagreed with his observation. They dared Prajapati to give any test to the two groups of brothers and see who comes out as the winner. Prajapati agreed and so did the suras. He made all the suras and asuras to sit on the floor and had a delicious meal kept in front of them. He asked them to eat, but with one condition, that they should not bend their elbows. The asuras were absolutely clueless; they failed miserably. How can you eat without bending your elbows? But the suras were wise. They rearranged themselves so that they faced each other, keeping a distance of an arm. Then they fed each other, of course without bending their elbows. Then Prajapati told the asuras in a compassionate voice, “O my deprived children, this is the secret of yajna. Help the world without any expectations and share your prosperity with the rest. You will in turn be helped and enriched!”

When yajna comes into action for the welfare of mankind, that is dana, or offering. The literal meaning of the word dana is ‘giving,’ ‘charity,’ or ‘offering’ but the real import of the word is ‘philanthropy.’ While engaging in this act of giving, one must not be insecure, or have the feeling that one is losing something. This demands mental and physical preparation. The training that leads to internal and external conditioning is called tapas. The term tapas translates into ‘penance,’ or ‘austerity,’ but mostly refers to a single-minded focus on work. Thus the threefold path of yajna, dana, and tapas leads us to dharma.

The Nature of the Self

All of us, without exception, want to be happy – at all times and at all places. Happiness is our highest goal. All our suffering, struggle, and effort invariably point towards the attainment of happiness. Happiness is the one point where all our diverging natures converge.

The means by which one attains happiness varies from person to person. What constitutes happiness also varies similarly. In general, the source of happiness is considered to be one or more of the following: health, food, beauty, materials, money, fame, power, social status, art, travel, family, knowledge, love, etc. Needless to say, what brings happiness to one might bring misery to another. But the very nature of happiness, the value, is not divergent. Our own experience reveals that happiness is a state of completeness where no inadequacy is felt. This state of fulfilment, though lasting for a moment, is essentially the same for everyone.

Leo Tolstoy starts off his novel Anna Karenina with the words: “All happy homes are alike. But every unhappy home is unhappy in its own way.” Joy has an absolute form while its opposite, sorrow, has many forms – and at a deeper level, they are all illusions.

This absolute state of joy is similar to the blissful experience of sound sleep. During sound sleep, all demands, desires, and differences disappear. Even the maladies of the body cease to exist during that time. This suggests that joy is innate but sorrow is externally thrust upon us. Our over-indulgence in the world brings sorrow.

Indeed, joy is also a product of external influences. But the happiness that we gain externally is short-lived and eventually leads to sorrow because it operates in the material world. But the bliss that we realize internally does not lead to sorrow. It is also interesting to note that sorrow cannot be generated internally, for our true state is bliss and not agony.

Light, like happiness, is a positive entity whereas darkness is a negative one. Darkness doesn’t exist as an independent entity but rather, it is the absence of light. Sorrow, like darkness, has no independent existence. It is just the absence of joy.

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When we ask someone “How are you?” to enquire of their well-being, if the answer we get is “I am fine,” then we will ask no more. But if the answer we get is “I am not fine,” then we will have many questions for them. Similarly, if someone has learnt something that is of interest to us, we ask “How do you know that?” or “How did you learn that?” We would rarely ask “Why do you know?”

Don’t these instances reveal that existence, awareness, and happiness are natural states of every living being? Even in the physical world, we see concepts such as equilibrium, valency, and steady-state, pointing to a similar truth.

Irrespective of our physical or mental condition, we wish to live on forever, learn everything, have everything, and become fulfilled. The dying one seeks the elixir of life, the weakest one desires the gold medal, and the dullest one desires the top prize. All these are not merely desires driven by external forces but it is our inner nature that motivates us to seek wisdom and joy through these means.

In sum, our ultimate ambition is eternal existence, eternal awareness, and eternal happiness. Further, nobody truly wants to be a subordinate to another; in fact, everyone wants to dominate over the others. This desire for absolute freedom and absolute authority accelerates one’s zeal for eternity. This is the quest after perfection, as Prof. M. Hiriyanna calls it.

Sanatana dharma identifies this desire in a sublime way, considering this to be inbuilt in us as the very nature of our own selves. Absolute existence (sat), absolute awareness (cit), and absolute bliss (ananda) that are independent of external factors constitute the nature of the self (atman). The very nature of atman is sat-cit-ananda.

The pursuit of attaining sat-cit-ananda through materialistic paths leads invariably to corruption and annihilation. Those who seek existence, awareness, and bliss from outwardly sources try to establish authority over others. They declare their own freedom at the cost of other’s freedom and invariably become tyrants, blemishing humankind. Sat-cit-ananda is not something to ‘attain’ but it is something to ‘realize,’ for it is always within.

Sanatana dharma clearly distinguishes these two paths in the attainment of self-supremacy. It has always advocated the spiritual path, which is essentially inwardly and has shunned the path of materialism, which is always outwardly. However, we must remember that although sanatana dharma takes such a firm stand, it doesn’t take refuge in a utopia. It recognizes the materialistic and gives it its due but encourages the evolution into the spiritualistic.

Materialism is an instrumental value, in that it is only a means and never an end in itself. This is why in the conception of the purusharthas, the idea is to manage demand (kama) and supply (artha) by the global compromise (dharma) in order to attain liberation (moksha). Materialism is inevitable but when pursued for its own sake without adherence to dharma and without the larger goal of moksha, it leads to destruction of the self and the surroundings.

Moksha is the ultimate value. Ananda, which is the very nature of moksha, is the fundamental value. All others are secondary and instrumental values.

Hinduism not only crystallized the concept of liberation but also established its instantaneousness. Liberation or salvation is not restricted to a post-death stage but can happen here and now. This brilliant conception is called jivanmukti – being liberated during one’s lifetime. The Upanishadic conception of salvation is not a post-dated cheque but a demand draft.

Let us look at the idea of jivanmukti with the lens of modern scientific temperament. Such an idea presupposes the futility of heaven, hell, divine judgement, apocalypse, etc. The highest ideal – liberation – can be attained by anyone, anywhere, anytime. It is within our reach. This is a great teaching.

But Hinduism never ignores individual accountability and sincerity in practice. It has the two opposite concepts of papa (sin) and punya (goodness, virtue). Everyone is expected to reduce their papa and increase their punya. We may explain the material implications of these two concepts using entropy, which is the measure of disorder or chaos in the universe. What recklessly adds to entropy is papa and what sincerely avoids entropy is punya.

There is no need to invoke any scripture or authority of any kind to follow the various points thus far. The reason for this is simple. Every religion claims that it is the most superior one and uses the revelations of its scriptures as authority. The proof provided and that which is to be proven is one and the same. This is absurd, because any book – scripture or otherwise – is the product of the human mind, which is in turn conditioned by its own spatiotemporal limitations. While on the one hand, there is no need to disrespect any scripture, on the other hand it is imperative to transcend all scriptures. We can realize the one underlying spirit in all existence only with the universal experience of oneself, not by reading a book or listening to a lecture.


Adapted from Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh’s article Foundations of Sanatana Dharma, translated from the original Kannada by K B S Ramachandra.



Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.


Hari is an author, translator, editor, designer, and violinist with a deep interest in philosophy, education pedagogy, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited some forty books, mostly related to Indian culture.

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உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
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इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

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Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...