Humour in Treatises of Indian Aesthetics – 1

प्रणमामि सितस्मेरप्रणवं गणनायकम् ॥

Humour is a divine gift to humans. While experiencing humour is wonderful, analyzing it can be quite difficult. It’s easy to find passages in treatises of alaṅkāra-śāstra (loosely translated as ‘Indian Aesthetics’) about analysis of humour along with and in comparison with other rasas (aesthetic experiences), guṇas (literary qualities), alaṅkāras (loosely ‘figures of speech’), dhvani (suggestion), bhāva (emotion), and aucitya (appropriateness, propriety). Due to the voluminous nature of such works, it tests the patience of the rasika (connoisseur); it’s difficult to give an analysis that is simple, complete, and at the same time entertaining.

The present article does not enter into the detailed analyses available in the works of various aestheticians. It is limited to providing an introduction with a collection of appropriate examples from both prose and poetry, along with some analysis as and when required. While the topic itself is vast, the variety is limited. Aestheticians, or experts in any other field, while presenting their arguments and opinions, direct all their efforts to provide sound arguments that are unambiguous and based on logic, not so much on lucidity and accessibility or writing in an entertaining style. Au contraire they opine that such a style is detrimental and weakens their respective fields. There is no hard and fast rule that scholars should have a lucid style that is natural to poets or that their works should read like an engrossing thriller. If at all humour manages to sneak into such works, it appears mostly in the form of sharp wit, mockery, or satire that is used to thrash the arguments of opponents or to put down rival schools of thought while substantiating their stand; they are thus quite incidental. Out of sheer necessity, examples in the current article are largely of the same category. However, even in such pungent mockery stemming from erudition there can be varied examples that manage to tickle the readers’ senses. Since the current topic is Indian Aesthetics, it is bound to contain some humorous verses, proverbial sayings, and traditional maxims that can entertain rasikas to an extent. That said, it remains the dance of erudition when humour is soaked in the aggressiveness of the sharp rapiers tied to the legs of roosters in a cockfight!

As per current knowledge, the first work related to aesthetics in Sanskrit is Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata [It also happens to be the oldest in the world]. In the first chapter of the Nāṭyaśāstra, the drama Amṛta-mathana (churning of the cosmic ocean of milk) is staged; the rākṣasas (demons) perceive it as an insult and this leads to a fight. Brahmā who appears to set things right between the devas (deities) and rākṣasas is made to utter these verses –
…अलं वो मन्युना दैत्या विषादं त्यजतानघाः॥
भवतां देवतानां च शुभाशुभविकल्पकः।
कर्मभावान्वयापेक्षी नाट्यवेदो मया कृतः॥
नैकान्ततोऽत्र भवतां देवानां चानुभावनम् ।
त्रैलोक्यस्यास्य सर्वस्य नाट्यं भावानुकीर्तनम् ॥
(Nāṭyaśāstra 1.105-7)
which, in the context of praising nāṭya-veda, makes clear many important concepts like sādhāraṇīkaraṇa (universalization), the values and virtues of a rasika, and so forth. The humour manifests—more than in the main play Amṛta-mathana—in the conduct of the rākṣasas who get provoked, turning the stage into a battlefield. The anaucitya (inappropriateness, impropriety) of perceiving one thing as another due to foolishness and getting agitated because of that is the reason for humour. Indeed the important message is that anaucitya is the main cause of humour.[1]

Among the later works in aesthetics, the Kāvyādarśa of Daṇḍi and Kāvyālaṅkāra of Bhāmaha are the oldest. There is mutual disagreement in these works; we find passages for and against each others’ opinions. Bhāmaha being a logician has a sharp wit and resorts to ridiculing all opinions that disagree with him.

He mocks Bhaṭṭi’s Rāvaṇavadha, a poetic work primarily aimed at bringing clarity in the usage of various grammatical rules and figures of speech, by borrowing Bhaṭṭi’s own words. He ridicules the following verse:
व्याख्यागम्यमिदं काव्यमुत्सवः सुधियामलम्।
हता दुर्मेधसश्चास्मिन् विद्वत्प्रियतया मया॥
(Rāvaṇavadha 22.34)
by saying:
काव्यान्यपि यदीमानि व्याख्यागम्यानि शस्त्रवत्।
उत्सवस्सुधियामेव हन्त दुर्मेधसो हताः॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 2.20)

Bhāmaha opines that poetry, while adhering to grammar and other rules, should primarily be entertaining. Instead of writing works that resemble poetry merely in form, death is far better, he says.
नाकवित्वमधर्माय व्याधये दण्डनाय वा।
कुकवित्वं पुनः साक्षान्मृतिमाहुर्मनीषिणः॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 1.12)

Daṇḍi respects and supports the Vaidarbhī style, but Bhāmaha’s opinion is the exact opposite. In fact he questions the popular opinion of placing the Vaidarbhī style at the top of the pecking order. He excels in ridiculing it with his sharp and acerbic wit resulting in humour as follows:
वैदर्भमन्यदस्तीति मन्यन्ते सुधियोऽपरे।
तदेव च किल ज्यायः सदर्थमपि नापरम्॥
गौडीयमिदमेतत्तु वैदर्भमिति किं पृथक्।
गतानुगतिकन्यायात् नानाख्येयममेधसाम्॥
ननु चाश्मकवंशादि वैदर्भमिति कथ्यते।
कामं तथास्तु प्रायेण संज्ञेच्छातो विधीयते॥
अपुष्टार्थमवक्रोक्ति प्रसन्नमृजुकोमलम्।
भिन्नगेयमिवेदं तु केवलं श्रुतिपेशलम्॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 1.31-34)

Further, when discussing misconceptions, he argues against the Mīmāṃsā school of philosophy, particularly that of Prabhākara; making a pun on the word ‘guru’ he taunts them as follows:
अत्रापि बहुवक्तव्यं जायते तत्तु नोचितम्।
गुरुभिः किं विवादेन यथा प्रकृतमुच्यते॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 4.7)

Likewise, while discussing ‘absurdity’ (violation of reality) in poetry, he mocks either Guṇāḍhya, the author of Bṛhatkathā, or Bhāsa (who adopts the story of Udayana from Bṛhatkathā in his works) involving the capture of Udayana as follows:

नमोऽस्तु तेभ्यो विद्वद्भ्यो येऽभिप्रायं कवेरिदम्।
शास्त्रलोकावपांस्यैवं नयन्ति नयवेदिनः॥
सचेतसो वनेभस्य चर्मणा निर्मितस्य च।
विशेषं वेद बालोऽपि कष्टं किं नु कथं नु तत्॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 4.45-46)[2]

Similarly discussing the violation of the Āgamas, he ridicules the story of Madanamañcukā from the Bṛhatkathā as follows:
भूभृतां पीतसोमानां न्याये वर्त्मनि तिष्ठताम्।
अलङ्करिष्णुना वंशं गुरौ सति जिगीषुणा॥
अभार्योढेन संस्कारमन्तरेण द्विजन्मना।
नरवाहनदत्तेन वेश्यावान् निशि पीडितः॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 4.48-49)

In the same section, he mocks the delusion of vinaya (conduct) thus:
न दूषणायायमुदाहृतो विधि-
र्न चाभिमानेन किमु प्रतीयते।
कृतात्मनां तत्त्वदृशां च मादृशो
जनोऽभिसन्धिं क इवावभेत्स्यते॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 4.50)

Next, he gives a funny example of negating a previous assertion as follows:
यतिर्मम पिता बाल्यात्सूनुर्यस्याहमौरसः॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 5.14)

To mock people ignorant of grammar and people who plagiarise, he quotes “अर्थगत्यर्थः शब्दप्रयोगः” from the Mahābhāṣya itself and ridicules the stand of grammar through the path of logic:
मुख्यस्तावदयं न्यायो यत्स्वशक्त्या प्रवर्तते।
अन्यसारस्वता नाम सन्त्यन्योक्त्यानुवादिनः॥
प्रतीतिरर्थेषु यतस्तं शब्दं ब्रुवते परे।
धूमाभासोरपि प्राप्ता शब्दताग्न्यनुमां प्रति॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 6.6-7)

Later he rejects one of the main premises of grammar, Sphoṭavāda, which is the progenitor of the dhvani-siddhānta (theory of suggestion).
शपथैरपि चादेयं वचो न स्फोटवादिनाम्।
नभःकुसुममस्तीति श्रद्धध्यात् कः सचेतनः॥
विनश्वरोऽस्तु नित्यो वा संबन्धोऽर्थेन वा सता।
नमोऽस्तु तेभ्यो विद्वद्भ्यः प्रमाणं योऽस्य निश्चितौ॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 6.12,15)

Bhāmaha opines that imaginative passages are far from reality and so also discussion about them is useless. He minces no words and takes no prisoners while portraying it through his acerbic humour combined with sharp wit and authoritative language.

Daṇḍi is a poet first, and hence he lacks the sharp logic of Bhāmaha; yet while criticizing Bhāmaha we find a hint of Daṇḍi’s latent sense of humour in many places. Bhāmaha being dead against the mere reporting of events in poetry places vakrokti (oblique expression) on a high pedestal as below:
गतोऽस्तमर्को भातीन्दुर्यान्ति वासाय पक्षिणः।
इत्येवमादि किं काव्यं वार्तामेनां प्रचक्षते॥
(Kāvyālaṅkāra 2.87)

Daṇḍi[3] picks up the same verse and twists it to give a lesson in aucitya to Bhāmaha:
गतोऽस्तमर्को भातीन्दुः यान्ति वासाय पक्षिणः।
इतीदमपि साध्वेव कालावस्थानिवेदने॥
(Kāvyādarśa 2.244)

Likewise while describing the importance of speech, Daṇḍi conjures up this verse:
गौर्गौः कामदुघा सम्यक्प्रयुक्ता स्मर्यते बुधैः।
दुष्प्रयुक्ता पुनर्गोत्वं प्रयोक्तुः सैव शंसति॥
(Kāvyādarśa 1.6)

Next in line comes Rudraṭa, an aesthetician who leans towards alaṅkāras (figures of speech). The commentator on his work Kāvyālaṅkāra, Namisādhu, brings light humour here and there. While describing the attributes of reality he portrays the difference between the worldly reality and poetic reality through a humorous verse filled with disgust, devoid of charm, consisting entirely of mundane reporting!
गोरपत्यं बलीवर्दस्तृणान्यत्ति मुखेन सः।
मूत्रं मुञ्चति शिश्नेन अपानेन तु गोमयम्॥
अस्य वास्तवत्वं न भवति….
(Commentary on Kāvyālaṅkāra 7.10)

In another instance Namisādhu brings up the famous and humorous verse by poetess Vikaṭanitambā composed in the Pañjarikā meter:
काले माषं सस्ये मासं वदति शकासं यश्च सकाशम्।
उष्ट्रे लुम्पति षं वा रं वा तस्मै दत्ता विकटनितम्बा॥
(Commentary on Kāvyālaṅkāra 6.47)

The tragicomic situation of Vikaṭanitambā has resulted in such an irony.

Even the theory of dhvani (suggestion) has no dearth of detractors since its inception. Ānandavardhana himself quotes one of the taunts from Manoratha. This mock verse is like a mirror to the minds of the naysayers of dhvani during his times:
यस्मिन्नस्ति न वस्तु किञ्चन मनःप्रह्लादि सालङ्कृति
व्युत्पन्नै रचितं च नैव वचनैर्वक्रोक्तिशून्यं च यत्।
तत्काव्यं ध्वनिना समन्वितमिति प्रीत्या प्रशंसन् जडो
नो विद्मोऽभिदधाति किं सुमतिना पृष्टः स्वरूपं ध्वनेः॥
(Dhvanyāloka 1.1 Vṛtti)

Even though Lollaṭa’s commentary on the Nāṭyaśāstra is unavailable, his thoughts have been recorded in many other works. His thoughts on aucitya (appropriateness, propriety) have been recorded in Hemacandra’s Kāvyānuśāsana and it contains a sharp taunt directed towards people ignorant of aucitya:
यस्तु सरिदद्रिसागरनगतुरगपुरादिवर्णने यत्नः।
कविशक्तिख्यातिफलो विततधियां नो मतः प्रबन्धेषु॥
अभिमानमात्रमेतत् गड्डुरिकादिप्रवाहो वा॥
(Kāvyānuśāsana 5.4 Vṛtti)

Kuntaka who comes after Ānandavardhana, showed how all the theories developed in aesthetics by and large follow Bhāmaha’s theory of vakrokti. Kuntaka doesn’t support the usage of natural description or the description of anything as it is (svabhāvokti) and exhibits his bias towards scholarly oblique expressions. In his opinion, svabhāvokti is something that needs to be decorated but is not an adornment by itself. And his way of expressing it is a treat to the rasikas:
शरीरं चेदलङ्कारः किमलङ्कुरुतेऽपरम्।
आत्मैव नात्मनस्स्कन्धं क्वचिदप्यधिरोहति॥
(Vakroktijīvita 1.13)

The great logician Mahimabhaṭṭa composed the Vyaktiviveka with the sole aim of contradicting both Kuntaka and Ānandavardhana. Many passages from his work remind us of the sharp wit of Bhāmaha. Mahimabhaṭṭa expresses his intent and sets out his targets in the first few passages of Vyaktiviveka with his unique and scholarly humour:
इह संप्रतिपत्तितोऽन्यथा वा ध्वनिकारस्य वचोविवेचनं नः।
नियतं यशसे प्रपत्स्यते यन्महतां संस्तव एव गौरवाय॥
सहसा यशोऽभिसर्तुं समुद्यतादृष्टदर्पणा मम धीः।
स्वालङ्कारविकल्पप्रकल्पने वेत्ति कथमिवावद्यम्॥
(Vyaktiviveka 1.3-4)

Here, Ruyyaka explains संस्तव (saṃstava) as ‘introduction.’ But it has another meaning: ‘praise.’ Mahimabhaṭṭa intending to destroy the view of Ānandavardhana still used the word संस्तव, thus praising him; this itself leads to such a great irony! Mahimabhaṭṭa also declares with arrogance that he has neither read the Hṛdayadarpaṇa of Bhaṭṭanāyaka, which also criticizes dhvani nor the Candrikā, a commentary that tries to explain Ānandavardhana’s stance though not in a commendable manner:
ध्वनिवर्त्मन्यतिगहने स्खलितं वाण्याः पदे पदे सुलभम्।
रभसेन यत्प्रवृत्ता प्रकाशकं चन्द्रिकाद्यदृष्ट्वेव॥
(Vyaktiviveka 1.5)

Taking his mockery further, Mahimabhaṭṭa declares that even though his qualification seems to be insufficient to criticize Ānandavardhana’s theory of dhvani, such thorough study isn’t necessary for such an easy and silly task!

Even in criticism he shows off his wit:
न एते विधेया विमर्शादयो दोषा इत्युच्यन्ते।
तानिदानीमखिलान् खला इव व्याख्यास्यामः।
स्वकृतिष्वयन्त्रितः कथमनुशिष्यादन्यमयमिति न वाच्यम्।
वारयति भिषगपथ्यादितरान् स्वयमाचरन्नपि तत्॥
(Vyaktiviveka 2.3)

He also sharply derides Kuntaka, who seems like an opponent of dhvani but supports it through a different route by calling him a ‘sahṛdayamānī’ and a ‘kāvyakāñcana kaśāśmamānī.’ Thus is the brilliance of the biting wit of Mahimabhaṭṭa!

In Dhanañjaya’s Daśarūpaka, the foremost among the opponents of dhvani, and in its subsequent commentary by Dhanika we see witty passages here and there.
आनन्दनिष्यन्दिषु रूपकेषु व्युत्पत्तिमात्रं फलमल्पबुद्धिः।
योऽपीतिहासादि वदाह साधुस्तस्मै नमस्स्वादुपराङ्मुखाय॥[4]
(Daśarūpaka 1.6)

His mockery of scholars who are devoid of taste and hell-bent on analysis of poetry that is filled with emotions and rich in content through dry unappetising logic and related means is worth enjoying.

To be continued.

This is a translation of a Kannada essay by Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh titled ‘ಅಲಂಕಾರಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಹಾಸ್ಯ’ from his remarkable anthology ಹುಡುಕಾಟ. Thanks to Dr. Ganesh and Shashi Kiran B N for their review and feedback. Edited by Hari Ravikumar.


[1] अनौचित्यप्रवृत्तिकृतमेव हि हास्यविभावत्वम् (Abhinavabhāratī). Anaucitya is the main cause of humour only when the anaucitya is in the other rasas. Anaucitya in humour itself leads to derision/ridicule and is thus detrimental.

[2] This can also be seen in verses 4.39–44.

[3] Although a digression, it is prudent to remember the taunt given by Vijjikā in reply to the benedictory verse (nāndī-padya) of Kāvyādarśa where Daṇḍi gives a description of a wholly fair Sarasvatī:
नीलोत्पलदलश्यामां विज्जिकां मामजानता।
वृथैव दण्डिना प्रोक्ता सर्वशुक्ला सरस्वती॥

[4] Compare this with Bhaṭṭanāyaka’s stance काव्ये रसयिता सर्वो न बोद्धा न नियोगभाक्



Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.



Raghavendra G S is a keen student of classical literature in Sanskrit and Kannada. He is one of the contributing editors of Prekshaa.

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Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...