Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita - Gaṅgāvataraṇam and Nalacaritram

This article is part 5 of 7 in the series Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita

Sarga 6

The sixth Sarga describes Bhagīratha's efforts at procuring Gaṅgā from Śiva through penance and praise. Trickling from ¾iva’s dreadlocks, the river, now subdued, follows Bhagīratha. On her way, Gaṅgā engulfs the hermitage of Jahnu, is drunk up by him and then released through his ear. She then reaches the holy city of Kāśi –

आमन्त्र्य मूर्ध्ना प्रणतेन शम्भुमारुह्य च स्यन्दनमग्रतस्तम् ।
संप्रस्थितं पार्थिवमन्वयासीत्स्रोतः पयं कीर्तिरिवास्य मूर्ता ॥

When the king took leave of Śiva and set out in his chariot, the river followed him as if she were his white fame. (6.25)

यामापतन्तीं महता रयेण सम्रभ्य तावज्जगृहे महेशः ।
तां लीलयैवापिबति स्म जह्नुस्ततोऽप्युदग्रा ननु तं प्रपन्नाः ॥

She had earlier been imprisoned by Śiva for rushing at him with great force and now this sage, Jahnu, drank her up at the drop of a hat. The Lord may be strong but his devotees are stronger. (6.37)

Sarga 7

The seventh Sarga describes the city of Kāśi when the river entered it. The sudden commotion which the river’s entry caused in the city, the conversations which women had amongst themselves on seeing the king and the river that followed him, the praises which sages showered on Gaṅgā and the prayers offered by Bhagīratha to Lord Vi¾van¡tha are superbly detailed by the poet.

स्थविरेषु गतेषु जाह्नवीसलिलोत्पीडभिया ततस्ततः ।
क्षणमध्ययनोपघाततः परितुष्टा वटवो विजह्निरे ॥

When their old supervisors dispersed in fear on seeing the approaching river, the students welcomed the short respite which they got from studying. (7.3)

इयमप्यपरा वराकिका दृगिवास्माकममर्त्यवाहिनी ।
अनुगच्छति तत्र तत्र तं पुरतो गच्छति यत्र यत्र सः ॥

This river is like our wretched glance. It follows Bhagīratha wherever he goes” – So said the women of Kāśi. (7.12)

Sarga 8

The eighth Sarga describes the victorious return of Bhagīratha to his capital after offering oblations to his forefathers in the hermitage of Kapila. This canto has descriptions of the ocean and the city of serpents in the nether world.

स्यमुपेतसमीरहुताशनैः स्फुटितभूविवरोदरशायिभिः ।
कणधरैरनपेक्षितवेतनैः प्रभुरवर्तत यत्र स वासुकिः ॥

Vāsuki ruled over that kingdom in the nether world and he paid not a penny to his servants, the serpents, because they subsisted on wind alone for their food and made any hole they could find their home. (8.36)

कतिचिदच्युतमञ्चकुलोद्भवाः कतिपये हरकुण्डलवंशजाः ।
रविरथाश्वगुणान्वयजाः परे तदिह तार्क्ष्यभयं न यदोकसाम् ॥

Some of these serpents are from the clan of Vīṣṇu's bed, some from Śiva's earring and few others from the reins of the suns horses. And therefore none of them have any fear of Garua. (8.40)

The above verse alludes to the mythological facts that Vīṣṇu reclines on a serpent, Śiva's ornaments are snakes and so are the reins of the sun’s horses.


This is a nāṭaka, one of the ten major types of drama described by the legendary sage Bharata in his Nāṭyaśāstra. Unfortunately however, the drama is incomplete, ending abruptly in the sixthact. The work is based on the famous story of Nala and his beloved, Damayantī, that occurs for the very first time in the epic Mahābhārata. The contents of this drama are summarized below along with the English translations of some memorable verses –

Act 1

The drama begins with a customary invocation, the nāndī. There are three verses given here, the first on Śiva's ardhanārīśvara form, the second on goddess Pārvatī and the third on Rāma's side-glances. This is followed by a long prelude where, through the dialogues between the stage-manager and his assistant, the audience is introduced to the subject of the drama as well as its composer and the illustrious family in which he was born. At the end of the prelude, we are told that Nala, the king, has seen Damayantī in a dream. Then enters Nala exhibiting his lovelorn condition –

O Kāma, like an object reflected in the mirror, you have shown me something that is impossible to attain. And my mind, which till now was peaceful, is not where it must be. Is this the way you show your strength? Is this a joke you are playing on me? Or is this your only skill? (1.13)

He then reveals to the jester Cārāyaṇa, his friend, the reason why he is sad. He also tells him how, when he caught a divine swan which he came across while hunting and then freed it, the grateful bird promised to unite him with the woman of his heart.

The jester then asks the king to paint the lady of his dream so that the astrologer Satyācārya, skilled in the art of interpreting bodily marks, could look at it and comment on her whereabouts, family, marital status and the like. The king is sure that she is unmarried because he didn’t see a marital cord adorning her neck.

The above verse tangentially refers to the three lines on Damayantī’s neck, a mark of feminine beauty. When Cārāyaṇa leaves to get the articles for painting, the chamberlain arrives and informs the king that his subjects are waiting at the palace’s doorstep to get a glimpse of him. The tired king orders him to dismiss the crowd but let Satyācārya alone in. Meanwhile, the jester enters with the queen’s servant, Kalāvatī, who is carrying the articles necessary to paint. The jester inadvertently blurts out the king’s desire for the mystery woman and the queen’s servant, angry at the king’s love for another lady, departs saying that she would narrate all that had occurred to her mistress.

When the king finishes painting the lady exactly as she was seen in his dream, the astrologer arrives. The jester chides the astrologer when the latter asks the king the reason why he was summoned – Arent you an astrologer? Why do you hold a mirror in your hand and ask us how your face looks? It is you who must be telling what is going on in the kings head. The astrologer predicts that the lady is either from Vidarbha or Virāṭa, is the daughter of a king, would surely marry, would have a partner who is a monarch and would face lot of obstacles both before and after her marriage. He also predicts that a non-human messenger who has the power of speech would, that very day, narrate everything about her to the king.

After the astrologer leaves, the king entertains himself with a walk in the royal garden. There he meets the divine swan which he had seen earlier and learns from it about Damayantī, the daughter of king Bhīma from Vidarbha. He also gets a message from the goddess Sarasvatī, who is described here as Bhīma’s sister, about how the creator Brahma, her husband, having created this girl, a gem of the three worlds, wanted Nala to marry her. After the swan leaves, heralds announce that it is afternoon and the king exits to have a bath.

Act 2

The second act begins with an interlude where Vācaspati, the preceptor of gods, is worried about his master, Indra, deciding to marry Damayantī. Furthermore, the sage Nārada, who has a penchant for inciting quarrels has visited Indra.

Then enters Vācaspati’s student, Vi¾v¡vasu and the two decide on a plan to make Damayantī marry Indra by requesting Nala to become Indra’s love-messenger to Damayantī. This would lead to a two-fold benefit. King Nala would not get angry at Indra for sending somebody else as a messenger to Damayantī and Damayantī would consider marrying Indra because if someone as accomplished as Nala could agree to become a messenger of Indra, it would imply that Indra is more suitable than Nala.

After the interlude ends, Indra, who has already been instructed by Vācaspati on what to do, enters the stage accompanied by Viśvāvasu, who is in an adjacent aerial car and Mātali, his charioteer. The trio then traverse through various places on the way before entering Kuṇḍinapurī, the capital of Vidarbha. Here they see a woman in the garden plucking soft shoots, apparently for Damayantī who is now suffering the pangs of love.

After dismissing Mātali, Indra orders Viśvāvasu to find out from her about what Damayantī’s desire is. Hiding himself under a charm, he not only overhears their conversation but also continues to speak to Viśvāvasu without the woman getting to know about it. Mistaking Vi¾v¡vasu for Bhadramukha, Nala’s messenger, the woman introduces herself as Damayantī’s friend and describes to him her mistress’s lovelorn condition. From their dialogue it is clear that Damayantī has set her heart on Nala alone. The woman departs to inform Damayantī that Nala would be arriving any moment while Indra and Vi¾v¡vasu wait for Nala in an adjacent garden of Campaka trees.

Act 3

The third act starts with a short interlude between Sāvitrī, a goddess and friend of and Anaṅgalatā, an attendant of Damayantī. Having known that she is in a deplorable state, the goddess orders Anaṅgalatā to fetch goddess Sarasvatī to the temple of Gaurī, Bhīma’s tutelary deity and herself sets out to bring Damayantī there.

Then enters Damayantī along with three of her friends, Sāraṅgikā, the woman who had conversed with Vi¾v¡vasu in the previous act, Vāsantikā and Candrakalā. They are confused about the identity of the person with whom Sāraṅgikā had spoken. The king and the jester also enter the garden where the three are sitting and hide behind a tree to overhear their conversation. The king who is initially in doubt about the identity of the lovesick woman in front of him learns that she is none other than his sweetheart.

In the meantime, Sarasvatī, who is pained beyond measure on account of Damayantī is searching for her along with Sāvitrī. The goddess is also worried that Nala has not yet turned up, unaware of the fact that he is hiding behind a tree. Knowing that Sarasvatī is searching for her, Damayantī and her friends go out looking for the goddess and all of them meet midway. As the womenfolk prepare to leave for the temple of Gaurī, the king and his jester follow them. On hearing a commotion behind the screens and anticipating that his soldiers must have come looking for him, Nala asks the jester to go and stop them. Listening to Sarasvatī ask Sāvitrī if Nala had arrived, the king reveals himself and offers his respect to the goddess

Sarasvatī asks Damayantī to offer a betel-leaf to their guest, Nala. But when the bashful girl is still confused about what to do, the jester arrives and informs Nala that Indra has just arrived. Nala prepares himself to meet the lord of gods while the womenfolk, who are aware of Indra’s intentions, decide to hide Damayantī from his view.

Act 4

In the fourth act, Nala describes to the jester Cārāyaṇa how Indra, after approaching him along with Viśvāvasu, pleaded with him to become his love-messenger and how he promised Indra thus –

I shall be your messenger and speak to her in such a way as behooves the cause of love. I shall also bring her to you, by force, if needed. But what I cannot say is whether or not she will accept you. (13)

Indra also grants him the power of disappearing at will - the knowledge of Tiraskariṇī - so he can enter the harem unseen. When the king does enter the harem, he is recognized by Sāvitrī through her divine powers. Sāvitrī in turn has been sent by goddess Sarasvatī who has already been made aware of the conversation between Indra and Nala through her spies. Sāvitrī reads out a message where it is made clear that Damayantī  would adore him and none else as the lord of her life if he accepted her and would die if he didn’t. Nala is now in a fix because he doesn’t know how to report this back to Indra. He fears Indra would not believe him. However, it is finally decided that the jester will report to Indra on the behalf of Nala that the latter did all that he had promised to do as a messenger but had no say on whether Damayantī would accept him.

It is moonrise by then and the jester arrives with a message from Indra which he whispers in to Nala’s ear. Soon a messenger arrives from Indra and leaves after placing a letter in front of the king. The letter has says this – You have humiliated us and therefore, we shall do to you what we deem fit. The jester also informs the king about Bhīma’s decision to give his daughter in marriage to Nala alone.

Acts 5 and 6

The fifth act is a short one. Nala and Damayantī are married by now and are in each other’s joyful company. Damayantī is reclining on Nala’s lap and dreams that she is in a forest and that her beloved has abandoned her. She wakes up terrified and is consoled by Nala.

In the sixth act which is incomplete Nala’s minister, Kāmantaka learns from the spy, Bhadramukha, about the friendship between Puṣkaraka, Nala’s wicked relative and Indra. The king meanwhile sends a message to Kāmantaka about the sudden degradation of piety in his kingdom. The drama ends incompletely with Kāmantaka dispatching the chief security of the city, Sāraṅgaka, to gather information on any supernatural being, whatsoever, that might be responsible for such a state of affairs in the kingdom.



Dr. Shankar is an 'ashtavadhani,' psychiatrist, poet, and Sanskrit scholar. He is a master of a complex poetic form in Sanskrit known as 'chitrakavya.' He translated Gangadevi's Madhuravijaya and Uddandakavi's Kokilasandesha into English.

Prekshaa Publications

Among the many contributions of ancient Indians to world thought, perhaps the most insightful is the realisation that ānanda (Bliss) is the ultimate goal of human existence. Since time immemorial, India has been a land steeped in contemplation about the nature of humans and the universe. The great ṛṣis (seers) and ṛṣikās (seeresses) embarked on critical analysis of subjective experience and...

One of the two great epics of India and arguably the most popular epic in the world, the Ramayana has enchanted generations of people not just in Greater India but the world over. In less than three hundred pages The Essential Ramayana captures all the poetic subtleties and noble values of the original and offers the great epic in an eminently readable form that will appeal to the learned and...

The Bhagavad-gītā isn’t merely a treatise on ultimate liberation. It is also a treatise on good living. Even the laity, which does not have its eye on mokṣa, can immensely benefit from the Gītā. It has the power to grant an attitude of reverence in worldly life, infuse enthusiasm in the execution of duty, impart fortitude in times of adversity, and offer solace to the heart when riddled by...

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...