Debunking the Aryan-Dravidian Issue: An Indigenous Approach

This article is part 3 of 3 in the series Aryan-Dravidian Issue

[This paper was submitted to the Swadeshi Indology Conference held in Chennai (December 2017)]

Dr. B G L Swamy


Bangalore Gundappa Lakshminarayana Swamy, (5.2.1916–2.11.1980) also known as B G L Swamy, was a botanist of international repute. He was a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard University for eight years, working under the guidance of Prof. Irving Bailey. Swamy's primary research area was plant anatomy, particularly the structure of connections between a plant’s root and stem. He discovered a few plant species that were hitherto unknown, such as Ascarina Maheshwarii and Sarcandra Irvingbaileyi, named after his teachers. He was the son of D V Gundappa, one of the most respected Indian writers and philosophers. Swamy was a polyglot proficient in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Sanskrit, Latin, French, German, and Spanish. He translated the compositions of Saint Purandaradāsa in the same poetic meter into Tamil. His findings on Vedic plants (Soma, specifically), plant-based addictions, plant taxonomy, migration of fruits and plants, and plants mentioned in classical Indian literature are invaluable contributions to their respective fields. These are recorded in many books that he authored in Kannada, such as Hasuru Honnu, which won the Central Sahitya Akademi award in 1978, Sākṣātkārada Hādiyalli, Phalaśruti, and Namma Hoṭṭeyalli Dakṣiṇa America. He authored a book on the temple of Chidambaram in which he traced the migration of śaivism from Kashmir to Tamil Nadu – an argument that challenges the Aryan-Dravidian divide. He was a gifted cartoonist, violinist, and epigraphist. He had an abiding interest in history, chiefly concerning the literary and social histories of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. His book Tamiḻu Talegaḻa Naḍuve and numerous academic papers record his observations on history. Kālejuraṅga, Kālejutaraṅga, and Prādhyāpakana Pīṭhadalli are some of his works that outline the academic frauds perpetrated in Tamil Nadu due to political influence. All his writings are spiced with lively humour.

Dr. B G L Swamy contributed to the Dravidian discourse by writing on the Tevāram trio (Swamy 1975), Tolkappiyam (Swamy 1975), Kalabhra interregnum (Swamy 1976), and Sangam poetry (Swamy 2013). In the process he dismantled many arguments concerning the Aryan-Dravidian divide.

He discussed the date of Tolkāppiyam by considering the following: time of appearance of Tamil script, period of infiltration of Sanskrit into South India, mythological episodes, peculiarities of grammar and usage in the text, and references to social customs in the text. Rubbishing the claim made by Ilakkuvanar (Ilakkuvanar 1963) that Tolkāppiyam was written in the seventh century BCE, Dr. Swamy remarked about the singular lack of evidence to highlight the impact of the text on Tamil literature till the beginning of the Common Era. He observed:

“In general, it is the existing conventions and usages that later become subjected to codification or systematization. Language and literature are no exceptions to this sequence. In other words, a grammar for a language cannot arise out of nothingness. Furthermore, the necessity for a grammar becomes obligate usually when a language, during its successive stages of growth, acquires either a notorious heterogeneity of usage or an unmanageable variety of communicative idiom or a cumbersome admixture of influences from neighbouring or extraneous sources; it is also likely that an opportunity for formulating laws is occasioned by a ‘fear’ of the loss of purity of a language. Revising the existing grammars, adding emendations and writing commentaries or glosses for their elucidation, are normal and necessary adjuncts of any proliferating language.”

(Swamy 1975: 296)

Repeated attempts have been made to delink Tamil from Sanskrit, not just at the level of language but also at the level of culture. Speaking of this, Dr. Swamy observed that at the stage when the South Indian dialects came to be written, we see an incipient impact of Sanskrit and Prakrit, but the impact became progressively pronounced with the dialects being employed for administrative and literary purposes. This is supported by the fact that the cave-inscriptions found in the Tamil country, which date back to third century BCE, contain a good proportion of Prakrit words (Subramaniam 1957). The case is no different with Telugu (Venkatavadhani 1960) and Kannada (Narasimhacharya 1940).

B G L Swamy:- Image courtesy:- Google Image Search

In the introductory portion of Tolkāppiyam, Dr. Swamy observed, it is said, “aindiraṃ nirainda tolkāppiyam,” which clearly indicates that it is a text based on Aindra-vyākaraṇa, which has undeniable Sanskrit roots. The text also mentions naḍu kal, ‘hero-stones.’ It outlines the different stages in erecting such a stone (Tolkāppiyam, 3.60) and refers to the writing engraved on the stone that eulogizes the bravery of the person involved. The earliest hero-stones that have been discovered belong to eight century CE and so the author of Tolkāppiyam certainly cannot be placed in an anterior period, Dr. Swamy argued. He further explained that these monuments are wholly absent in typical Tamil regions—Coḻa, Cera, and Pāṇḍya confines—excepting the border areas that were constantly changing hands with the ruling dynasties of the north. This circumscribes the topology of the composition or, at least, suggests that the author belonged to an area where the custom of erection of hero-stones was in vogue.

Five commentaries on the text were composed during thirteenth century CE. The composition of the actual text could not have been far-removed from this period. Further, the legends endeavouring to place the text in ancient centuries were themselves composed only in the age of its commentaries, Dr. Swamy argued. He drew attention to the all-round literary development throughout south India in the eleventh and twelfth centuries (CE) due to the influence of revivalist religious movements—Bauddha and Jaina—and their interaction with the existing faiths. It was in this period that Sanskrit assumed an equal status among the Dravidian languages and contributed its notable share of knowledge. The cultural data depicted in Tolkāppiyam is of such a kind that the period of its authorship can be homogeneously fitted into the cultural matrix of the earlier centuries of the medieval period. This positions the text at tenth century CE, he concluded.

Writing about Sangam literature, Dr. Swamy observed that the word ‘saṅgham’ (saṅga>caṅka) was originally the Sanskrit word ‘saṅkalana’ – anthology. Most of the works on sūkti in Sanskrit and Prakrit are basically anthologies – Subhāṣitaratnakośa, Subhāṣitāvali, Sūktimuktāvali, Saduktikarṇāmṛta etc. It is also interesting to note that the classification agaṃ and puraṃ in Tamil are nothing but śṛṅgāra and vīra rasas seen in Sanskrit texts. One can also observe the stark similarities between Sangam texts and Sanskrit and Prakrit works such as Amaruśatakam, Gāhāsattasaī, and Vajjālagga. The figures of speech, poetic conventions, types of heroes and heroines, ālambana and uddīpana vibhāva-s are all essentially aligned with the Sanskrit tradition inspired by Bharata (Ganesh 2005: 92-102). There are copious references to the Vedas, Rāmāyaṇa, and Mahābhārata in Sangam literature (Malhotra 2011: 431-437). We do not find even a single instance in the whole of Sangam literature that is against the spirit of sanātana-dharma.

There have been varied opinions regarding the period of Śilappadikāram. While the popular view assigns it to second century CE, there have been people arguing to place it in timelines as distant as second century BCE (Arokiasamy 1967) and eighth century CE. Dr. Swamy showed that Śilappadikāram employs the campū style, a mixture of prose and verse. This genre of literature surfaced around the ninth century CE and developed in languages such as Sanskrit and Kannada around tenth century CE. Most of the campū works in Kannada are composed by Jaina poets. It is a historical fact that there was widespread religious activity of Jains in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu during ninth and eleventh centuries (CE) and cultural exchange between the two states was never unheard of. Seen in this light, Śilappadikāram must have been composed around tenth century CE (Swamy 2013: 66).

Dr. Swamy’s dating of Tolkāppiyam and Śilappadikāram could be challenged and they may be pushed back by a few centuries, but his fundamental argument that they cannot be assigned to a period before the Common Era is unquestionable. His references to hero-stones and saṅkalana are insightful. Going by the nature of urban life as depicted in these texts and considering the mercenary and mercantile activities of ancient times, it is safe to assign them to the later classical period, toward the end of the Gupta age, and the early medieval period, which dates back to the end of sixth century CE.


The writings of Prof. S. Srikanta Sastri, Vidvān Sediyapu Krishna Bhat, and Dr. B G L Swamy present a wealth of evidence to debunk the Aryan-Dravidian theory. These three scholars had a deep understanding of original Sanskrit texts and hence their observations are authentic, reliable, and authoritative. With the academia the world over developing a propensity to pander to western needs and ignore indigenous views, the writings of many scholars are yet to be taken seriously. For instance, the literature produced by towering scholars such as Vasudev Sharan Agrawala, Buddha Prakash, Shripad Damodar Satwalekar, and Vishva Bandhu is far from entering the mainstream; it is yet to be critically examined. Sufficient work has been done on the said issue in every regional language of India and such literature has to be traced, studied, and supplemented, if need be, in the light of modern research. This paper is but a small step in that direction.


  1. Whitney, William Dwight. Language and the Study of Language. London: N. Trubner and Co., Ludgate Hill, 1884.
  2. Aryans. Bharatiya Vidya, Vol. 3. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1947.
  3. Datta, B. N. The Origin of the Aryans. Hindustan Review, 1942. p.361.
  4. Śrīkaṇṭhayāna: Collected Papers of Dr. S. Srikanta Sastri, Vol. 1. Bengaluru: The Mythic Society, 2016. p.10.
  5. Zimmermann, R. Hymns from the Rgveda. New Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 2004
  6. Risley, Herbert. The People of India. London. W. Thacker and Co., 1915.
  7. Haddon, A. C. The Races of Man and their Distribution. New York. F A Stokes Co., 1909.
  8. Dixon, Roland B. The Racial History of Man. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923.
  9. Sastri, Srikanta S. India, the original home of Aryans. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. 1. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 2010. pp. 220-221.
  10. Sastri, Srikanta S. Proto Indic Religion. QJMS, Vol. 32. Bangalore: The Mythic Society, 1941.
  11. Vṛṣākapi. K M Munshi Diamond Jubilee Commemoration Volume, Bharatiya Vidya, Vol. 10. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1951.
  12. Wakankar, V. S. Indian Prehistory as Revealed by Excavations, Explorations and Rock Art Study at Bhimbetka and in the Adjoining Regions. Purakala, 2008.
  13. Bhat, Sediyapu Krishna. Sediyapu Chandassamputa. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 2006.
  14. Krishna Bhat, Sediyapu. Tathyadarśana. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 1997.
  15. Caldwell, Robert. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages. London: Trubner and Co., Ludgate Hill, 1875.
  16. Swamy, B G L. The Date of the Tevāram Trio – An Analysis and Reappraisal. Madras: Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures, 1975.
  17. Swamy, B G L. The Date of Tolkāppiyam – A Retrospect. Annals of Oriental Research, 1975.
  18. Swamy, B G L. Kalabhra Interregnum – A Retrospect and Prospect. Madras: Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures, 20.1, 1976.
  19. Swamy, B G L. Tamiḻu Talegaḻa Naḍuve. Mysore: Kavyalaya Publishers, 2013.
  20. Ilakkuvanar, S. Tolkāppiyam in English with Critical Studies. Madurai: Kural Neri Publishing House, 1963.
  21. Subramaniam, T N. South Indian Temple Inscriptions, Vol. 3, Part 2. Madras, 1957.
  22. Venkatavadhani, D. Āndhra Vāṅgmayārambhadaśa, Vol. 1. Hyderabad, 1960.
  23. Narasimhacharya, R. History of Kannada Literature. Mysore: 1940
  24. Ganesh, R. Bhāṣābhṛṅgada Benneri. Bangalore: Vasanta Prakashana, 2005. pp. 92-102.
  25. Malhotra, Rajiv and Neelakandan, Aravindan. Breaking India: Western Interventions in Dravidian and Dalit Faultlines. New Delhi: Amaryllis, 2011. pp. 431-437.
  26. Arokiasamy, M. The Classical Age of Tamils. Madras, 1967.

Co-written by Shashi Kiran B N.




Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.


Shashi Kiran B N holds a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and a master's degree in Sanskrit. His interests include Indian aesthetics, Hindu scriptures, Sanskrit and Kannada literature and philosophy.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...