May the Guru Sri Krishna Grant us Auspiciousness!

This article is part 19 of 20 in the series Puranas

Our Sastric Vidvans have laid down that in order to establish the essence and authority of a philosophical work, we must follow specific methodology such as upakrama. Because it is impossible to describe all of them in the constraints of this piece, we can only consider the abhyāsa method. abhyāsa means repeating the same subject over and over in consonance with the context. The sentences (from the Bhagavatam) cited below should hopefully make scholars and thinkers reassess their views as to the philosophical direction which the Bhagavatam points to. The Parabrahman is second to none. Nothing else exists apart from it.

1.    Everything that is perceived through the mind or speech or sight or through other sense organs, all of it is “I, and nothing but I.” Understand this truth through philosophical contemplation. (11.13.24)

2.    Nature is the applicatory cause for the effect known as the world. The Purusha is the supervisory edifice for Prakrti. Time is what brings disturbance to Prakrti. I, who am verily the Parabrahman is also the three: Prakrti, Purusha and Time. (11.24.19)

3.    The Ultimate Truth does not have distinctions. If anyone thinks that distinctions exist, such a person is ignorant. However, the distinctions that are manifested in the world are akin to microcosmic and macrocosmic Space, akin to the Sun inside water and in the sky, and akin to the air that exists inside our body and in the atmosphere. It is a mere apparition. (12.4.30)

4.    Time, space, operation, doer, cause, activity, knowledge, matter, and fruit – through Maya, Sri Hari has manifested as these nine forms. (12.11.31)

5.    nānyad bhagavataḥ kiñcid bhāvyaṃ sadasadātmakam (2.6.32). There is nothing in this world that is beyond Bhagavan.

More such phrases and verses may be seen: 2.6.15, 2.6.41, 2.7.39, 2.5.14, 6.4.47, 6.16.51, 8.3.3., 11.13.31, 11.28.6, 11.28.19, 12.11.31.

The Paramatman is Attribute-less, Unqualified, Pure Knowledge and shows himself with attributes due to Maya.

1.    Sattva, Rajas and Tamas—these are the attributes of Buddhi and not that of the Atman. (11.13.1)

2.    na vidyate yasya ca janma karma vā
na nāmarūpe guṇadoṣa eva vā (8.3.8)

Paramatman has no material birth, activities, name, form, qualities or faults. To fulfil the purpose for which this material world is created and destroyed, He assumes name and form through the power of Maya.

3.    niṣedhaśeṣo jayatādaśeṣa: (8.3.24)

When we begin to reject forms and attributes, the thing that ultimately remains is Brahman. May Glory be to It!

4.    nirviśeṣāya sāmyāya namo jñānaghanāya ca (8.3.12)

I offer my obeisance unto the Brahman, who has no material qualities but who accepts the three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance within this material world.

5.    All the gunas take refuge in me who is without attributes and absolute. (11.13.40)

See also: 11.29.20, 1.2.31, 4.20.7, 4.21.34, 8.6.11.

All of Creation is the mental sport of Maya. The physical world is not the truth, but an illusion.

1.    The world which is tangible in the Atman should be considered as an illusion after firm contemplation. After that, it must be discarded and the person should be immersed in the real Self. It must never be recalled. (11.19.27)

2.    This Rajasic Creation which is the consequence of the interplay of the Five Elements will show itself as manifested although it doesn’t exist. (11.28.22)

3.    That which reveals itself both through normal and special emotions is all an illusion. (12.4.28)

4.    I have told you in a condensed fashion all the different forms of my Vibhuti (Exalted Existence). These are all imaginary appearances of emotions and not Ultimate Truths. If one were to verbalise them, they are akin to flowers in sky. (11.16.41)

5.    avidyayā manasā kalpitāste
yeṣāṃ samūhena kṛto viśeṣaḥ || (5.12.9)  

The special creations such as this earth and others which are made by the collection of atoms, those atoms are the creations of the mind through the power of Avidya.

The world created by the forces of Maya, which reveals in the Atman, is “avidyāracita svapnagandharvanagaropama.”  The Bhagavatam clearly says this in 4.12.15.

For more, see: 11.13.34, 7.15.58, 4.29.35, 11.19.1, 11.22.54, etc.

“jīvo bramhaiva nāparaḥ” 

1. I am the Ishwara, jīva, guṇa, guṇi and Everything. Nothing apart me exists anywhere. (11.16.38)

2. A Muni must constantly contemplate upon on me in solitude from a perspective of indivisibility. (11.18.21)

3. ‘Maharaja Parikshita: “I am Brahman, the Eternal Abode. I am also the Highest State, Brahman.” Fix your Consciousness in this Unqualified and Stainless Brahman. (12.5.11)

4. ātmanasya parasyāpi yaḥ karotyantarodaram |
tasya bhinnadṛśo mṛtyur vidadhe bhayamulbaṇam || (3.29.26)
Even to a person who sees the slightest of difference between him and the Paramatman, Death will cause enormous fear in him.

5. ahaṃ bhavān na cānyastvaṃ tvamevāham vicakṣvabhoḥ |
na naḥ paśyanti kavayacchidram jātu manāgapi || (4.28.62)
I am you. You are not different. Realize that you are me! The Jnanis never detect any difference between us.

See also: 1.5.27, 11.3.4, 5, & 6, 11.3.37, 11.12.17, 3.29.24, 3.33.26, 4.28.42, 4.31.18, 83.3.13, etc.

The Nature of Moksha

1.    When a pot is broken, the space inside it once again merges into the ethereal Space. In the same manner, from the True Knowledge of the Atman, when the (attachment towards) body perishes, the jīva once again becomes one with Brahman. (12.5.5)

2.    (After this discourse), Maharaja Parikshita became a Great Yogi. He became unattached and free from all doubts and became one with the Brahman. (12.6.10)

3.    A bee known as Peśaskāri bring an insect and places it inside a niche in a wall. That insect keeps contemplating on the bee without giving up its original bodily form, and eventually acquires the nature of the bee itself. (In the same manner, the person who meditates upon me will verily become me: 11.9.23).

4.    Avidya causes bondage. Vidya grants Moksha or freedom from bondage. In reality, the worldly life does not exist. Both bondage and freedom appear as much due to the Maya created by me. Worldly life is akin to a dream. (11.1.11 through 4)

|| satyaṃ jñānaṃ anantaṃ brahma; ānando brahma ||

1.    Kevalānubhavānandasandoho nirupādhikaḥ (11.9.18)

2.    vijñānam etat triy-avasthamaṅga (11.28.20)

3.    viśuddhaṁ kevalaṁ jñānaṁ pratyak samyag avasthitam |
satyaṁ pūrṇam anādy-antaṁ nirguṇaṁ nityam advayam || (2.6.26)

4.    jñāna-mātraṁ paraṁ brahma paramātmeśvaraḥ pumān (3.32.26)

Condemnation of Duality

1.    dvaite dhruvārtha-viśrambhaṁ tyajopaśamam āviśa (6.15.26)

2.    kiṁ bhadraṁ kim abhadraṁ vā dvaitasyāvastunaḥ kiyat (11.28.4)

Praise of Advaita

bhāvādvaitaṁ kriyādvaitaṁ dravyādvaitaṁ tathātmanaḥ | vartayansvānubhūtyeha trīn svapnān dhunute muniḥ || (7.15.62)


māyāsṛṣṭāṃ nikhilajagatīmātmanānupraviśya
kṣemāyāsyā hariharavirincābhidānaṃ dadhānaḥ |
śreyaḥprāptyai sugamapadavīmuddhavavyājatosmān
yovāśāsīt sa paramaguruḥ stūyatāṃ vāsudevaḥ || 

naranākṛtiyaṃ taḻardum  
paratattvada permeyaṃ prabhodhisi dhareyaṃ |
poreyute duruḻara tariyute
guruvāgiha kṛṣṇanemage nīḍuge śubhamaṃ ||

He who donned the human form
And extolled the glory of the philosophy of Brahman on Mother Earth
Protecting us, destroying the wicked
He who became our Guru, may that Krishna grant us auspiciousness.


To be continued



Mahamahopadhyaya Vidwan Ranganatha Sharma was a renowned Sanskrit scholar and an authority on Vyakarana or Grammar. He is noted for his translation of the entire Valmiki Ramayana into Kannada, which was published with a foreword by DVG. He has authored several books in Kannada and Sanskrit. He is a recipient of the national award for Sanskrit learning and has received the Rajyotsava Award.  



Sandeep Balakrishna is a writer, author, translator, and socio-political-cultural analyst. He is the author of "Tipu Sultan: The Tyrant of Mysore" and "The Madurai Sultanate: A Concise History." He translated Dr. S L Bhyrappa's magnum opus "Avarana" into English.

Prekshaa Publications

Among the many contributions of ancient Indians to world thought, perhaps the most insightful is the realisation that ānanda (Bliss) is the ultimate goal of human existence. Since time immemorial, India has been a land steeped in contemplation about the nature of humans and the universe. The great ṛṣis (seers) and ṛṣikās (seeresses) embarked on critical analysis of subjective experience and...

One of the two great epics of India and arguably the most popular epic in the world, the Ramayana has enchanted generations of people not just in Greater India but the world over. In less than three hundred pages The Essential Ramayana captures all the poetic subtleties and noble values of the original and offers the great epic in an eminently readable form that will appeal to the learned and...

The Bhagavad-gītā isn’t merely a treatise on ultimate liberation. It is also a treatise on good living. Even the laity, which does not have its eye on mokṣa, can immensely benefit from the Gītā. It has the power to grant an attitude of reverence in worldly life, infuse enthusiasm in the execution of duty, impart fortitude in times of adversity, and offer solace to the heart when riddled by...

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...