ವಿಡಂಬನೆಯೆಂಬುದು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಒಂದು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟಪ್ರಕಾರವಾಗಿದೆ. ವಿಡಂಬನೆ ಅಥವಾ ಅಣಕುವಾಡು ಎಂದರೆ ಮೂಲ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾದ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಶ್ರಯಿಸಿ ಅದೇ ಶೈಲಿಯನ್ನು ಅನುಕರಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೋ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಲಘುವಾಗಿಸುವ ಉದ್ದೇಶವಿದೆ ಎಂದಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾದ ಮಾರ್ಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಲಘುವಾದ ಹಾಸ್ಯಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವನ್ನು ತಂದಾಗ ಹುಟ್ಟುವ ಆಸ್ವಾದನೀಯತೆ ಅವರ್ಣ್ಯ! ಹೀಗೆ ಯಾವುದೋ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಶ್ರಯಿಸಿ ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಅಣಕುವಾಡನ್ನು ರಚಿಸುವುದು ಬಹಳ ಹಿಂದಿನಿಂದಲೂ ನಡೆದುಬಂದಿದೆ. ಕಾಳಿದಾಸನ ಮೇಘದೂತವನ್ನು ಕಂಡು ಅದರಂತೆಯೇ ಬಂದ ದೂತಕಾವ್ಯಗಳ ಪರಂಪರೆಯನ್ನು ಅವಲೋಕಿಸಿದರೆ ಸಾಕು ಅದರ ವೈಶಾಲ್ಯವನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಯಬಹುದು.
The subsequent sarga contains descriptions of a counsel between Taṭātakā, Malayadhvaja’s daughter and her minister, Sumati, followed by a description of the evening –
यः किलानुशरदं विजयार्थी पार्थिवं त्वरयसे गमनाय |
स प्रवर्तयसि मां न कथं त्वं बालिकेयमिति किं विशयानः ||
‘You would, in every autumn, encourage the king, my father, to go on a military expedition. Then why don’t you do the same with me this time? Is it because you fear I am just a young girl?” (8.9)
As noted earlier, Kālidāsa has been the greatest yet most graceful exponent of Indian values. He has upheld the highest values of our tradition at the individual, societal and universal levels. He advocates an austere but aggressive pursuit of prosperity. Likewise, he advocates a moral but intense pursuit of desires. It is summed up in one verse describing how King Dilīpa was.
Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita’s Time, Place and Family Background
Kālidāsa has probably provided us with the finest pictures of the pure life led by sages in hermitages. It is among the many things that he has pioneered. From his description of life in hermitages, it is clear that a sage is one who is more humane than most humans. It is because of this that he becomes divine in the larger sense. It is not as if he has no concerns; it is just that he is concerned about everything around him. And it is not as if he has given up everything; it is just that he accommodates everything.
The epic opens with a magnificent hyperbole describing the great Himalayan mountains:
स्थितः पृथिव्या इव मानदण्डः ||
The Himalayas is like a great measuring scale used to measure the earth.
The narrative then moves to describing his daughter Pārvatī. We can look at a few descriptions of Pārvatī.
Kālidāsa is known as the master of similes. The Sanskrit tradition has proclaimed it as ‘Upamā Kālidāsasya.’ The variety, depth and appropriateness of his similes remains unsurpassed to this day. A study of his similes is itself an education in many branches of knowledge. Instead of confining ourselves strictly to the similes, we can look at the superset called sādṛṣyamūlālaṅkāra. Dṛṣṭānta (Analogy) and atiśayokti (hyperbole) also fall into the same category. The following selection from his works will be a veritable treat to rasikas.
We shall now turn to the role of idiomatic language in poetry. As we all know, idiom is the life of any language. It is the hallmark of a great poet to employ idioms in his verses. At the same time, this is also a challenge, as idioms are generally easier to fit into a prose passage. Here are a few examples from languages other than Sanskrit:
The focus of this article, as evident from the title, is on the role played by meter, idiom, diction and figures of speech—features that enrich the total aesthetic appeal of a poem—in classical Indian poetry. Art is created when emotions are sublimated and imagination is brought into action. Emotions moulded by imagination (pratibhā)—with or without the assistance of erudition (vyutpatti) and practice (abhyāsa)—result in a work of art, while mere emotions end up in their worldly destination of pain and pleasure.
Perhaps there is no other poet in Sanskrit or any other Indian language who has described the mythology, knowledge, geography, flora and fauna of our country in such vivid and intimate detail as Kālidāsa has. This is the primary reason why he should be our national poet. For him, no place was just a mass of land; no river just a mass of water; no city just a mass of people; and no Indian value just a thought. This can be seen from many illustrations in his works.