Emotions and Imagination in Classical Indian Poetry

This article is part 2 of 3 in the series Emotions & Imagination in Classical Indian Poetry

The focus of this article, as evident from the title, is on the role played by meter, idiom, diction and figures of speech—features that enrich the total aesthetic appeal of a poem—in classical Indian poetry. Art is created when emotions are sublimated and imagination is brought into action. Emotions moulded by imagination (pratibhā)—with or without the assistance of erudition (vyutpatti) and practice (abhyāsa)—result in a work of art, while mere emotions end up in their worldly destination of pain and pleasure. According to Indian Aesthetics, in the creation of any art, particularly classical arts, Imagination, Erudition, and Practice play a significant role.

An accomplished poet’s intensely contemplated emotions are sure to find beautiful expression. According to Indian Aesthetics, this power of reflecting upon deep emotional experiences with a detached and yet compassionate sense is termed pratibhā. The creation of a poet can either be in prose or verse/song. It can even take a mixed form, as Indian Poetics, unlike its Western counterpart, placed no restrictions on the formal structuring of a poetic expression. However, it has rightly preferred a carefully crafted form that is exquisite both in terms of sound and sense. Poetic meter and various types of alliterations contribute to the sound in a poem, while idioms, grammar, and figures of speech contribute to the sense. Diction, imagery, and style contribute to both. The extent to which these elements succeed depends upon their intrinsic power to cater to suggestion, endorsed by a sense of appropriateness. Indian Aesthetics condenses all these parameters to four major concepts:

  1. Vakratā – beauty of poetic expression that is created in terms of sound and sense,
  2. Aucitya – propriety that has a contextual final say on the acceptance or rejection of suggestions that spring from the poem under consideration,
  3. Dhvani – suggestion that triggers Aesthetic Enjoyment, and
  4. Rasa – the Aesthetic Experience.

In the light of these basic concepts, parameters such as meter, diction, idiom, imagery, and figures of speech are discussed in this paper, with respect to a few choice verses culled out from the vast lore of classical Sanskrit literature as well as from Prakrit, Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Hindi literatures. Issues like the relationship between prosody and emotions, nature and structure of imagery versus emotions, diction vis-à-vis emotions will be discussed along with their implications on poetic imagination/


With this background, let us take up the aforementioned elements one by one. First comes the constraint of poetic meter. Prosody, the science of meters, offers many varieties of metrical patterns that can be aesthetically employed for composing verses. Indian Prosody, which is rooted in the Sanskrit tradition, is a rich repository of meters that fall into several structural categories. A detailed analysis of poetic meters is beyond the scope of this paper since our present focus is on the impact of meter on poetry. Poetic meter, though not an indispensable entity in poetry, is always a desirable feature, for it has its own unfailing merit in intensifying the aesthetic appeal. Indian Aesthetics teaches us that chandas (poetic meter) is a vyañjaka-sāmagrī in poesy. A skilled poet who has a keen sense of sound and how it complements sense will always be careful in choosing his metre. Wrong choice of meter, though not a great blemish, certainly mars the total appeal. Here are few examples to show the effect of aucitya and anaucitya in employing meters:

A verse (1.27) from Bhavabhūti’s play Uttara-rāma-caritam, where a metre has been judiciously employed:

किमपि किमपि मन्दं मन्दमासत्तियोगा-
दविरलितकपोलं जल्पतोरक्रमेण |
रविदितगतयामा रात्रिरेव व्यरम्सीत् ||

kimapi kimapi mandaṃ mandamāsattiyogā-
daviralitakapolaṃlam jalpatorakrameṇa |
raviditagatayāmā rātrireva vyaramsīt ||

This poem is composed in the meter Mālinī, known for its soft and sweet rhythm. This is naturally suited for tender situations such as romance. It is interesting to note that in this verse, the word-order and sound-patterns are in consonance with the governing sentiment. We shall recast the verse in another meter and feel the change:

*मन्दं मन्दमिव क्वचित्किमपि वा किञ्चित् समासत्तितो
गाढं गण्डसमञ्जनेन युगपज्जल्पाकशिल्पैस्तथा |
नीता रात्रिरवेद्ययामविभवा सा केवलं केवला ||

(The verses marked with ‘*’ at the beginning have been composed by the present author.)

*mandaṃ mandamiva kvacitkimapi vā kiñcit samāsattito
gāḍhaṃ gaṇḍasamañjanena yugapajjalpākaśilpaistathā |
nītā rātriravedyayāmavibhavā sā kevalaṃ kevalā ||

Anyone who is initiated into Sanskrit learning would feel the marked change of sound and rhythm that leads to a dampening of the rasa-experience. This is because of the employment of Śārdūlavikrīḍitam, a robust and masculine metre, along with the compounding of words so as to do justice to its bombastic nature. Hence, it is clear that the tender love, richly articulated in the metrical pattern of Mālinī, (the meter of Bhavabhūti’s choice) is lost somewhere in the high-sounding majestic structure of Śārdūlavikrīḍitam.

A verse (3.8) from the play Veṇī-saṃhāram of Bhaṭṭa Nārāyaṇa, which exhibits a wrong choice of meter:

दग्धुं विश्वं दहनकिरणैर्नोदिता द्वादशार्का
वाता वाता दिशि दिशि न वा सप्तधा सप्त भिन्नाः |
छन्नं मेघैर्न गगनतलं पुष्करावर्तकाद्यैः
पापं पापाः कथयथ कथं शौर्यराशेः पितुर्मे ||

dagdhuṃ viśvaṃ dahanakiraṇairnoditā dvādaśārkā
vātā vātā diśi diśi na vā saptadhā sapta bhinnāḥ |
channaṃ meghairna gaganatalaṃ puṣkarāvartakādyaiḥ
pāpaṃ pāpāḥ kathayatha kathaṃ śauryarāśeḥ piturme ||

This verse is an attempt to depict the sentiment of heroism. It also brings out the spirit of wrath and wonder. For such a pulsating emotional drama, the poet has chosen the meter Mandākrāntā, which is well known to depict yearning. Great poets like Kālidāsa have immortalised this measure in delineating the emotions of pathos and love in separation. Above all, the very rhythmic structure of Mandākrāntā is gentle and melancholic. Here is an attempt to recast the same idea with little change in the structure, and yet have a rhythmic pattern that is appropriate to the situation:

*दग्धुं विश्वं समस्तं प्रदहनकिरणैर्नोदिता द्वादशार्का
वाता वाता प्रभूता दिशि दिशि न च वा सप्तधा सप्त भिन्नाः |
छन्नं मेघैरमोघैर्न हि गगनतलं पुष्करावर्तकाद्यैः
पापं पापा दुरापाः क्व कथयथ कथं शौर्यराशेः पितुर्मे ||

*dagdhuṃ viśvaṃ samastaṃ pradahanakiraṇairnoditā dvādaśārkā
vātā vātā prabhūtā diśi diśi na ca vā saptadhā sapta bhinnāḥ |
channaṃ meghairamoghairna hi gaganatalaṃ puṣkarāvartakādyaiḥ
pāpaṃ pāpā durāpāḥ kva kathayatha kathaṃ śauryarāśeḥ piturme ||

This revised version is in the meter Sragdharā, known for its imposing nature, particularly prescribed for describing the heroic acts of war. Anyone initiated in the lore of Sanskrit poetry would appreciate this modification.

In this verse, an attempt has been made by the present author, almost mischievously, to recast a philosophically profound verse (Vairāgya-śatakam, v. 85) by Bhartṛhari into a fresh metrical pattern. One can observe the effect that such recasting brings about.

मातर्मेदिनि तात मारुत सखे तेजः सुबन्धो जल
भार्तर्व्योम निबद्ध एष भवतामन्त्यप्रणामाञ्जलिः |
ज्ञानापस्तसमस्तमोहमहिमा लीये परे ब्रह्मणि ||

mātarmedini tāta māruta sakhe tejaḥ subandho jala
bhārtarvyoma nibaddha eṣa bhavatāmantyapraṇāmāñjaliḥ |
jñānāpastasamastamohamahimā līye pare brahmaṇi ||

The metrical parody:

*मातरुर्वि पितः प्रभञ्जन मित्र पावक बन्धुमन्
तोय सोदर चाम्बर क्रियते ममान्त्यनमस्क्रिया |
ज्ञाननिर्गलदात्ममोहचयो रमेऽथ परात्मनि  ||

mātarurvi pitaḥ prabhañjana mitra pāvaka bandhuman
toya sodara cāmbara kriyate mamāntyanamaskriyā |
jñānanirgaladātmamohacayo rame’tha parātmani  ||

Though the import, with all its profound meaning, is brought into this recasting along with the successful imitation of compound words in the second half of the original verse, sublimity, its very breath, is glaringly missing. This is because of a mismatch of the meter. The grand Śārdūlavikrīḍitam of the original verse is caricatured by the employment of Haranartanam or Mallikāmalā. The former is a laya-rahita meter of the highest order, while the latter is a typical layānvita measure known for its feminine grace. This change is not at all welcome in the present context.

Here is a verse of Jagannātha found in his Bhāminī-vilāsa (p. 37) –

दिगन्ते श्रूयन्ते मदमलिनगण्डाः करटिनः
करिण्यः कारुण्यास्पदमसमशीलाः खलु मृगाः |
इदानीं लोकेऽस्मिन्ननुपमशिखानां पुनरयं
नखानां पाण्डित्यं प्रकटयतु कस्मिन् मृगपतिः ||

digante śrūyante madamalinagaṇḍāḥ karaṭinaḥ
kariṇyaḥ kāruṇyāspadamasamaśīlāḥ khalu mṛgāḥ |
idānīṃ loke'sminnanupamaśikhānāṃ punarayaṃ
nakhānāṃ pāṇḍityaṃ prakaṭayatu kasmin mṛgapatiḥ ||

This poem is set in the grave-sounding meter Śikhariṇī. In spite of employing apt words and having rich content and striking imagery, it does not have an imposing rhythm. More than the power of the lion, its helplessness, which is already explicit in the verse, is overemphasized by using Śikhariṇī. Here is an attempt to re-structure it in Śārdūlavikrīḍitam, a majestic meter tailor-made for such situations:

*श्रूयन्ते हि दिगन्त एव करिणो दानार्द्रगण्डस्थलाः
कारुण्यास्पदहेलयात्र न समा एणाः करिण्यस्तथा |
लोकेऽस्मिन्नुपमानहीनशिखिनां सम्प्रत्ययं हा पुनः
पाण्डित्यं प्रकटीकरोतु नखराग्राणां मृगाणां पतिः  ||

śrūyante hi diganta eva kariṇo dānārdragaṇḍasthalāḥ
kāruṇyāspadahelayātra na samā eṇāḥ kariṇyastathā |
loke'sminnupamānahīnaśikhināṃ sampratyayaṃ hā punaḥ
pāṇḍityaṃ prakaṭīkarotu nakharāgrāṇāṃ mṛgāṇāṃ patiḥ  ||

This verse includes all the features of the original and is consonant with Paṇḍitarāja’s pompous nature. Through such examples, one can understand the pros and cons of metrical articulation in classical poetry.


We shall move on to the role of imagery in classical poetry. Ānandavardhana, in his path-breaking work Dhvanyāloka, declares that a true figure of speech is that which always leads to rasa. Else it is no embellishment. Such an act of embellishment should not only be natural but also suit the situation. Here are two examples of skilful employment of figures of speech where, in spite of simple diction and unassuming sound-patterns, mere imagery is good enough to evoke rasa:

हारो नारोपितः कण्ठे
मया विश्लेषभीरुणा |
इदानीमन्तरे जाताः
पर्वतास्सरितो द्रुमाः ||

hāro nāropitaḥ kaṇṭhe
mayā viśleṣabhīruṇā |
idānīmantare jātāḥ
parvatāssarito drumāḥ ||

This is a verse (5.25) from Hānūmannāṭakam, describing the pangs of separation of Rāma. His feeling was that in a deep embrace, even a tender garland is a barrier between him and Sīta. But now, they are separated by a vast span of mountains, rivers, and woods. What a contrast! Here, the main rasa, Vipralambha, i.e. love in separation, has found its enrichment even in such a small composition of thirty-two syllables. Such is the emotional richness of this verse. The whole credit for this should go to the Viamālaṅkāra imagery employed here. The contrast between a garland and a wide span of land and sea is grippingly narrated by virtue of this figure of speech, and that is the power of alaṅkāra. This is the reason why Indian Aesthetics—since the time of Bhāmaha, Daṇḍi, Vāmana, Rudraṭa, and a host of later writers—has been prescriptive about imagery in poetry.

पुरस्कृता वर्त्मनि पार्थिवेन
प्रत्युद्गता पार्थिवधर्मपत्न्या |
तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुर्-
दिनक्षपामध्यगतेव सन्ध्या ||

puraskṛtā vartmani pārthivena
pratyudgatā pārthivadharmapatnyā |
tadantare sā virarāja dhenur-
dinakṣapāmadhyagateva sandhyā ||

This is a well-known verse (2.20) from Raghuvaṃśam, the magnum opus of Kālidāsa. Here the poet is describing a picturesque scene wherein his hero Dilīpa, clad in white and his consort Sudakṣiṇā, dressed in deep blue are coming in a line, while the divine cow Nandinī of reddish brown complexion is between them. This has triggered the poet’s imagination to compare it with Time, moving in a sequence of day, dusk, and night. It is indeed a telling imagery that visualises the scene in an unforgettable way. This is due to the power of upamā (simile), the mother of all figures of speech. It has been aided by our poet’s power of keen observation.

In both these cases, we have seen a marked difference being brought into the verses by the employment of apt imagery. This is sufficient to compensate for the absence of other fringe embellishments.

To be continued.



Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...