Humour in Treatises of Indian Aesthetics – 3

Viśvanātha who wrote Sāhityadarpaṇa starts off by criticizing the attributes of poetry as described by Mammaṭa and others, and ridicules the suggestion that comes from the topic or the object of poetry. Such suggestion, in his opinion, cannot be poetry. From his perspective, sentences filled with emotion make up poetry and nothing else, for:
देवदत्तो ग्रामं याति इति वाक्ये तद्भृत्यस्य तदनुसरणरूपव्यङ्ग्यावगतेरपि काव्यं स्यात्!
(Sāhityadarpaṇa Vṛtti 1.2)

The dexterity that is in display here is employed in ridiculing his opinion by Jagannātha in his Rasagaṅgādhara, which can been seen later. Viśvanātha analysing extreme secrecy in poetic suggestion provides an interesting example:
संधौ सर्वस्वहरणं विग्रहे प्राणनिग्रहः।
अल्लावुद्दीननृपतौ न सन्धिर्न च विग्रहः॥
(Sāhityadarpaṇa Vṛtti 4.14)

His objection is that the primary import here – friendship or enmity with Allauddin Khilji is futile – is extremely secretive. Also there is another unintended humorous meaning: ‘Allauddin’ being a word not originating from Sanskrit, it is violation of the rules of grammar to either compound it (samāsa) or connect it (sandhi) with any other Sanskrit word! In his Rasārṇavasudhākara, Siṃhabhūpāla has substantiated that “semblance of emotion” is also good enough and derides others like Bhoja and Vidyādhara who are against it.
विवेकरहितजनोपलक्षणम्लेच्छगतस्य रसस्याभासत्वे स्वेष्टावाप्ते
(Rasārṇavasudhākara, p. 206)

Moving on, we have Appayyadīkṣita who was a master of all trades and also author of more than a hundred works. One among them is Citramīmāṃsā. Some examples given there are very humorous. Here is one verse just to drive home the above point. The verse contains Sandeha, the figure of speech expressive of doubt:
काञ्चित्काञ्चनगौराङ्गीं वीक्ष्य साक्षादिव श्रियम्।
वरदस्संशयापन्नो वक्षस्थलमवैक्षत॥
(Citramīmāṃsā, p. 63)

The last expert among this dying class of aestheticians is Paṇḍitarāja Jagannātha who is the heir apparent of Bhāmaha-Mahimabhaṭṭa when it comes to sharp derision. Self-exaggerating humour manifests here and there in his writings. In the introduction itself he establishes his opinion on the attributes of poetry and mocks Viśvanātha’s opinion: वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम्. With such attributes, he alleges that even sentences like गौश्चरति मृगो धावति would appear as though filled with emotive content and passes his verdict by saying:
इत्यादावतिप्रसक्तत्वेन अप्रयोजकत्वात्
(Rasagaṅgādhara, p. 24)
thus employing the famous maxim—परदण्डेनैव परस्य ताडनम्—beating up the opposition with their own stick!

The commentary to this work Rasacandrikā, in a different context says ‘गूढत्वस्फुटत्वाभ्यां व्यङ्ग्यस्य चमत्कारिता नश्यतीति सहृदयानुभवः’ and thus tries to indicate how clarity and secrecy should work.
अर्थो गिरामपिहितः पिहितश्च कश्चित् सौभाग्यमेति महराष्ट्रवधूकुचाभः।
नो गुर्जरीस्तन इवातितरां निगूढो नो केरलीकुच इवातितरां प्रकाशः॥
(Rasacandrikā, p. 41)

Further it analyses the famous verse from Amaruka ‘शून्यं वासगृहं…’ and finds fault in that resulting in this taunt ‘कवेर्निर्माणसामग्रीदारिद्र्यं प्रकाशयति’ followed by a conclusive judgement ‘इत्यलं परकीयकाव्यविमर्शनेन!’ He abuses Appayyadīkṣita at the drop of a hat as ‘draviḍaśiśu’ as though on a personal mission seeking vengeance. Most of the mockery is a result of jealousy and thus is returned in kind by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa, a commentator on his own work; this is an irony in itself![1] Overall we find more derisive humour than light humour in Paṇḍitarāja.

Till now we have seen humour that has occurred during the presentation and refutation of arguments by various aestheticians. We can see some of the examples they quote when describing humour and conclude this article.

Surprisingly, expressing humour hasn’t been a well-developed paradigm among the aestheticians.  The different methods of analysing it have also been not set in stone. Thus the examples can be often rustic, and also inappropriate. Therefore we can see examples in various stages of fineness.

The following verse is an example of intimate humour. It is from the great work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa by the doyen among the kings, Paramāra Bhoja.
यदेव रोचते मह्यं तदेव कुरुते प्रिया।
इति वेत्ति न जानाति यत्करोति च तत्प्रियम्॥
(Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa, p. 698)

This verse in Rasaratnapradīpikā of Allarāja is loaded with suggestion and portrays the general descent of value systems and thus mocks the society. (This is also present in Daśarūpaka of Dhanañjaya).
‘भिक्षो मांसनिषेवणं प्रकुरुषे’ ‘किं तेन मद्यं विना’
‘मद्यं चापि तव प्रियं’ ‘प्रियमहो वेश्याङ्गनाभिस्सह’।
‘वेश्या द्रव्यरुचिः कुतस्तव धनं?’ ‘द्यूतेन चौर्येण वा’
‘चौर्यद्यूतपरिग्रहोऽपि भवतो?’ ‘भ्रष्टस्य कान्या गतिः?’॥
(Rasaratnapradīpikā, p. 31)

Even though Bhānudatta’s Rasamañjarī mainly deals with romance, humour makes an appearance here and there and can be seen in the following Āryā verse:
तस्याः सुतनुसरस्यां चेतो नयनं च निष्पतितम्।
गुरु चेतस्तु निमग्नं लघुनयनं सर्वतो भ्रमति॥
(Rasamañjarī, p. 265)

The humour is evident to rasikas. Another work by the same author, Rasataraṅgiṇī, also contains valuable information about humour with many examples and quotations. We can see a few here:
रतोत्सवे वल्लभयज्ञसूत्रं कण्ठावलग्नं परिमोचयन्तीम्।
द्विजाङ्गनां दीर्घतरं श्वसन्तीं तारस्वनं वारवधूर्जहास॥
(Rasataraṅgiṇī 7.6)

चोरः कामरिपोर्गृहं निशि गतः शूलं कपालं हरन्
बीजं धूर्तफलस्य तण्डुलधिया नीत्वा पुनर्भुक्तवान्।
व्यावल्गन्प्रचलन् स्खलन् परिपतन् मुह्यन्निघूर्णन् हसन्
अट्टाट्टध्वनिमुक्तमौलिकुसुमं स्वर्वेश्यया हस्यते॥
(Rasataraṅgiṇī 7.7)

These are indicative of his creativity and fearlessness and also the all-pervading erudition of Sanskrit scholars of yore.

The verse from the commentary of Alaṅkārakaustubha by Kavikarṇapūra, which is written on a king named Lokanātha is quite famous and drives its point through the usage of emphasis and oblique expression:
परान्नं प्राप्य दुर्बुद्धे! प्राणेभ्यो मा दयां कुरु।
दुर्लभानि परान्नानि प्राणा जन्मनि जन्मनि॥
(Alaṅkārakaustubha, p. 143)

Keśavamiśra’s Alaṅkāraśekhara contains the following verse, which uses his knowledge of grammar to create such a wonderful humour that remains eternally fresh despite being quoted numerous times by one and all:
नपुंसकमिति ज्ञात्वा प्रियायै प्रेषितं मनः।
तत्तु तत्रैव रमते हताः पाणिनिना वयम्॥
(Alaṅkāraśekhara, p. 80)

Jagannātha again in Rasagaṅgādhara gives this beautiful example:
श्रीतातपादैर्विहिते निरूपिता नूतनयुक्तिरेषा।
अङ्गं गवां पूर्वमहो पवित्रं न वा कथं रासभधर्मपत्न्याः॥
(Rasagaṅgādhara, p. 119)

While there is an abundance of such verses we need to conclude so as to complete the article within a reasonable length.

Akin to all other related fields in Sanskrit, even in aesthetics, we find limited humour. The reason is yet again the rules of the game. And wherever it appears, it is mainly due to the expertise of the scholar and serves the purpose of thrashing the opponents. Even so, aesthetics is about analysis of poetry and thus light and entertaining humour that appears is a bonus, and produces joy in the hearts of rasikas. The current attempt is a set of baby steps towards recognising such instances of humour within the limits of the author’s expertise and in no way is it complete or rigorous.


This is a translation of a Kannada essay by Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh titled ‘ಅಲಂಕಾರಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಹಾಸ್ಯ’ from his remarkable anthology ಹುಡುಕಾಟ. Thanks to Dr. Ganesh and Shashi Kiran B N for their review and feedback. Edited by Hari Ravikumar.

  1. Nāṭyaśāstra (Bharata). Baroda: Gaikwad Oriental Series, 1980
  2. Rāvaṇavadhā (Bhaṭṭi). Benaras: Chaukambha Publications, 1980
  3. Kāvyālaṅkāra (Bhāmaha). Edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Mysore: Sharada Mandir, 1974
  4. Kāvyādarśa (Daṇḍi). Edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Mysore: Sharada Mandir, 1975
  5. Kāvyālaṅkāra (Rudraṭa). Bombay: Kavyamala Series, 1928
  6. Dhvanyāloka (Ānandavardhana) [with Locana]. Benaras: Kashi Sanskrit Series, 1970
  7. Dhvanyāloka Locana (Abhinavagupta) [with Kaumudī ] 1940
  8. Locana of Abhinavagupta. Edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Delhi: Meherchand Lakshmandas Publications, 1988
  9. Kavyānuśāsana (Hemacandra). Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1934
  10. Vakrotijīvita (Kuntaka). Edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Dharwad, 1977
  11. Vyaktiviveka (Mahimabhaṭṭa). Benaras: Kashi Sanskrit Series, 1936
  12. Daśarūpaka (Dhanañjaya). Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1941
  13. Kavikaṇṭhābharaṇa (Kṣemendra). Edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Mysore: Sharada Mandir, 1977
  14. Kāvyamīmāṃsā (Rājaśekhara). Baroda: Gaikwad Oriental Series, 1920
  15. Candrāloka (Jayadeva). Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1907
  16. Kāvyaprakāśa (Mammaṭa). Mysore: Oriental Research Institute, 1974
  17. Kāvyaprakāśa (Mammaṭa). Translated and edited by Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy. Mysore: Sharada Mandir, 1973
  18. Sāhityadarpaṇa (Viśvanātha) Benaras: Kashi Sanskrit Series, 1955
  19. Rasārṇavasudhākara (Simhabhūpāla). Madras: Adyar Library, 1979
  20. Citramīmāṃsā (Appayadīkṣita) Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1907
  21. Rasagaṅgādhara (Jagannātha). Benaras: Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Saraswati Bhavan Granthamala, 1977
  22. Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa (Bhoja). Bombay: Kavyamala Series, 1934
  23. Rasaratnapradīpikā (Allarāja). Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1940
  24. Rasamañjari (Bhānudatta). Benaras: Kashi Sanskrit Series, 1904
  25. Rasataraṅgiṇī (Bhānudatta). Benaras: Kashi Sanskrit Series, 1886
  26. Alaṅkārakaustubha (Kavikarṇapūra). Rahshahi: Varendra Research Society, 1926
  27. Alaṅkāraśekhara (Keśavamiśra). Bombay: Kavyamala Series, 1914
  28. Nāṭyaśāstra (Bharata). R S Nagar. Delhi: Parimal Publications, 1988

Other than the references listed above, treatises such as Ekāvalī, Pratāparudrīya, Alaṅkārasarvasva, Alaṅkārasārasaṃgraha, Sāhityamīmāṃsā, Śṛṅgāraprakāśa, Vāgbhaṭā-laṅkāra, Kuvalayānanda, Citramīmāṃsākhaṇḍana, Kāvyālaṅkārasūtra, Aucityavicāracarcā, Alaṅkārasaṃgraha, Kāvyapradīpa, Nāṭyadarpaṇa, Bhāvaprakāśana, Ujjvalanīlamaṇi and others were also referred to, although nothing has been quoted from them.


[1] There are many instances in Sanskrit literature and aesthetics where the commentator himself becomes the critic of a work. Famous among them are Ruyyaka’s commentary to Vyaktiviveka as well as the Marmaprakāśa, a commentary on the Rasagaṅgādhara by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa.




Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.



Raghavendra G S is a keen student of classical literature in Sanskrit and Kannada. He is one of the contributing editors of Prekshaa.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...