Ch 18 Yoga of Single-pointed Surrender (Part 20)

This article is part 115 of 118 in the series Jīvana-dharma-yoga

2.  Universal self-hood (Atmaupamya): is the perfection of knowledge; its ripe fruit. Intellectual conviction is achieved via reflection upon the śāstras and refined by life’s training. This conviction is then transformed into experience through contemplation. Such a knower sees himself everywhere. He looks upon the world with the same affection as a mother would her children. All lives are his own. Just as a mother’s life mingles with her children’s lives, the knower of the Self becomes one with the welfare of all beings. The experience of one’s own Self everywhere is another kind of adhidharma which is surrendering entirely unto Brahma.

Thus the paths for emancipation are three: 1. Devotion with surrender. 2. Following dharma prescribed by the śāstras. 3. Seeing one’s own self as the Universal Self. “Arjuna, choose any of these three paths. Do not venture into śāstric hair-splitting or debates. Have faith in me and fight for the sake of my words.” That is surrender.

Or, the Vedas declare that fighting in a war for dharma is the duty of a kṣatriya. The world is Bhagavān’s kingdom whose inhabitants are your co-subjects. Establishing justice among them is therefore the worship of the divine. You can fight with this perspective in mind as well. This is being obedient to dharma.

Or, go beyond the three guṇas! As the world is but a līlā of Supreme Brahma, you can fight thinking thus - “I am but a wave in this ocean of Brahma’s pastimes. I am a throb in this great roiling of the world. I should hence be one with it and sublimate my “I”-ness in it”! This is experiencing Brahma’s presence. It is also the experience of one’s own self everywhere.
You have these three paths. Choose one of these three - one that suits you, one for which you are capable and ready, and one that your mind likes. Decide that path for yourself.”

vimṛśyaitadeśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru ||

Having said this, Bhagavān asked - “Have your ignorance and delusion subsided?” Arjuna replied :

naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtirlabdhā...
kariṣye vacanaṃ tava ॥
O Acyuta, due to your grace in the form of your teaching, all my doubts have been destroyed. I will do as you say.


Then started the war.

After listening to this conversation between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, Sañjaya submitted to Dhṛtarāṣṭra: 

yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ ।
tatra śrīrvijayo bhūtirdhruvā nītirmatirmama ॥

BG 18.78

ಯೋಗಪತಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣನುಂ ಧನು-
ರಾಗಮಪತಿ ಪಾರ್ಥನುಂ ಮತೈಕ್ಯದೇ ಧರ್ಮೋ-
ದ್ಯೋಗದಿ ತೊಡಗಿಹ ಪಕ್ಷದಿ
ಭಾಗ್ಯಶ್ರೀ ನೆಲಸಿ ನಲಿವಳದು ನಿಶ್ಶಂಕಮ್ ॥

yogapati kṛṣṇanuṃ dhanu-
rāgamapati pārthanuṃ mataikyadè dharmo-
dyogadi toḍagiha pakṣadi
bhāgyaśrī nèlasi nalivaḻadu niśśaṃkam ॥

“When the lord of yoga, Kṛṣṇa and
the lord of archery, Arjuna,
act together for dharma,
the goddess of auspiciousness lives
and delights there, without a doubt!”

ತತ್ತ್ವವಿವೇಕದ ಯೋಗಂ
ಕ್ಷತ್ರಿಯವೀರ್ಯಪ್ರಯೋಗಮೀಯುಭಯಮುಮೇ
ಕತ್ವದೊಳಿರೆ ಜಯಸುಖಸಂ-
ಪತ್ತುಗಳುಂ ಧರ್ಮನೀತಿಯುಂ ಸಂಸಿದ್ಧಮ್ ॥

tattva-vivekada yogaṃ
kṣatriya-vīrya-prayogamīyubhayamume-
katvadoḻire jayasukhasaṃ-
pattugaḻuṃ dharmanītiyuṃ saṃsiddham ॥

When the yoga of the knowledge of the ultimate principle
and the valorous practice of kṣatra are in unison,
Victory, happiness, wealth, and
the rule of dharma are well established.

|| OM TAT SAT ||

 

Gist

ಹರಿಶರಣತೆ ಸ್ವಕರ್ಮಾ-
ಭಿರತತೆ ಮಿತಭೋಗತೃಪ್ತಿಯೀ ತ್ರಿವ್ರತದಿಂ ।
ಪರಿಶುದ್ಧಿಯಾಂತು ಜೀವಂ
ನಿರಹಂಕೃತಿಯಿಂ ಪರಾತ್ಮಶಾಂತಿಯ ಪಡೆಗುಂ ।। ೧ ।।
Purified by this vrata-triad of
surrender to Hari, engagement in one’s own duty,
and contentment in limited pleasure,
the jīva becomes egoless and attains supreme tranquility.

ಗುರುಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವಿಧೇಯತೆಯಿನೊ
ಹರಿಪದಕೆ ಸಮರ್ಪ್ಯಮಾತ್ಮಮೆಂಬಾಸ್ಥೆಯಿನೋ ।
ಪರಿಗತಸಾರ್ವಾತ್ಮ್ಯದಿನೋ
ಶರಣಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮೈಕಮೆಂದು ಚರಿಸುವವನಘಮ್   ।। ೨ ।।
Through obedience to guru and śāstra,
or the faith that one’s self has to be surrendered at Hari’s feet,
or contemplation on omnipresent universal self-hood,
the blemishless one surrenders to the one Brahma.

ನಿಷ್ಠಂ  ತಾಂ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮದೊಳಿರ-
ಲಿಷ್ಟಾನಿಷ್ಟಕೃದಹಂತೆ ನಿರ್ಮೂಲಮಿರಲ್ |
ದುಷ್ಟತೆಯವನೆಡೆಯಿರದೆಂ-
ಬಷ್ಟಾದಶದಿಂ ಸಮಾಪ್ತಮೀಶ್ವರಗೀತಮ್ || ೩ ||
When established in Brahma,
when the ego that causes likes and dislikes is uprooted,
no evil exists with him.
Thus concludes the song of Īśvara in the eighteenth.

ಭೂತಲಪರಿಶ್ರಮಿಗೆ ಸಂ-
ಗೀತಂ ಶ್ರಮಹಾರಿ ಸುಖದಮಂತೆಯೆ ಭಗವ-
ದ್ಗೀತಾಗಾನಂ ಲೋಗರ
ಚೇತಃಕ್ಲೇಶಗಳ ಕಳೆದು ಶಾಂತಿಯ ಕುಡುಗುಮ್  ।।
Just as music rids the farmer
of fatigue and gives joy,
the song of Bhagavān removes
the world’s mental distress and bestows peace.

The Gist of the third sextet

ಆತ್ಮಾನಾತ್ಮವಿವೇಕಂ
ಸತ್ತ್ವಮಯಶ್ರದ್ಧೆ ಭಗವದರ್ಪಿತಜೀವಂ ।
ತತ್ತ್ವಾಪ್ತಿಗೆ ಸಾಧನಮಿವು
ಮುಕ್ತಿಪದಂ ಜ್ಞಾನಮೆಂಬುದಂತಿಮಷಟ್ಕಮ್  ।।
"Discernment between self and non-self,
Faith permeated by sattva, and a life offered to Bhagavān
are the means to achieve the supreme principle.
The state of mukti is knowledge." -
thus states the final sextet.

ವಿವಿಧಮತಗಭೀರಂ ಸಾಮರಸ್ಯಪ್ರಕಾರಂ 
ಗೃಹಿಯತಿಸಮುದಾರಂ ಸರ್ವಜೀವೋಪಚಾರಮ್  ।
ಸುರನರಸಹಕಾರಂ ಸ್ವಾತ್ಮಸಾರ್ವಾತ್ಮ್ಯಸಾರಂ
ಭವಜಲನಿಧಿಪಾರಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣಗೀತಾವತಾರಮ್ ।।

Deep with various thoughts, the means towards harmony,
Generous to both householders and monks, a consolation to every jīva,
Helping both deva and man, the essence of Universal selfhood,
Deliverer across the ocean of saṃsāra, is the incarnation of Kṛṣṇa as the Gītā.

ವೇಣುಸ್ವಾನಸ್ಫುರದಧರದಿಂ  ಶಂಖನಿರ್ಘೋಷರೌದ್ರಂ
ಗೋಪೀವಸ್ತ್ರಾಹರಣಕರದಿಂ ಚಂಡಚಕ್ರಪ್ರಹಾರಮ್  ।
ದ್ವಂದ್ವೈಶ್ವರ್ಯಂಗಳೊಳಮವನಿಂತಿರ್ದುಮದ್ವಂದ್ವಸತ್ತ್ವಂ
ಚಾಲಿಕ್ಕೆಮ್ಮಂ ನಿಜಚರಣಕಾ ವಾಸುದೇವಾಖ್ಯತೇಜಮ್ ।।    
The terrific roar of the śaṅkha issued from the lips that play the flute.
The destructive cakra was dispatched by the hand that stole the Gopīs’ garments,
The essence beyond opposites that resided amidst battles and wealth,
May that radiance known as Vāsudeva lead us to its feet.


The gist of the three parts

ಭಕ್ತಿ ತ್ರಿವಿಧಂ ಧರ್ಮ-
ವ್ಯಕ್ತಂ ಧ್ಯಾನಪ್ರಯುಕ್ತಮ್ ಆತ್ಮಜ್ಞಾನೋ -।
ಪಾತ್ತಮ್ ಅನುಕ್ರಮದಿಂ ಸಂ-
ಪ್ರೋಕ್ತಮಿದಧ್ಯಾಯಷಟ್ಕಕಾಂಡತ್ರಯದಿಂ ।।
The tri-fold bhakti - expressed through dharma,
applied through dhyāna, and attained through self-knowledge
has been enumerated respectively in the three chapter-sextets.

ಸ್ವೀಯಮಧುರಸವೀಂಟ ಕಾಯಕೋಟಿಗಳಿಂದೆ
ಮಾಯೆಯೊಡನಾಡಿ ವಿಶ್ವದೊಳವಳ ನಖದಿಮ್ |
ಗಾಯವಡೆದಳುತಲೆಚ್ಚೆತ್ತು ತತ್ತ್ವವನರಸಿ
ಸಾಯುಜ್ಯವೆಳಸುತಿಹುದಾತ್ಮಂ ವಿಚಿತ್ರಮ್ ||
’Tis strange that the self, having embraced Māyā in the world
through a billion bodies oozing her sweet nectar,
wakes up crying after being wounded by her nails, and
seeks out the ultimate principle, longing for unity!

ಮಾನುಷ್ಯಾಂತಃಕರಣಬಲದೌರ್ಬಲ್ಯಚಾಪಲ್ಯನಿಮ್ನೋ-
ತ್ತಾನೋತ್ತಾಲಂಗಳನರಿತು ಜೀವಾರ್ಹಸಾಹ್ಯಂಗಳಂ ಸಂ-|
ಧಾನಿಪ್ಪಾತಂ ಪರಮಪುರುಷಂ ಧರ್ಮರಕ್ಷೈಕದೀಕ್ಷಂ
ಸ್ವಾನಂದಾಸೇಚನಚಣ ಘನಶ್ಯಾಮಲಂ ಕೋಮಲಾತ್ಮಮ್ ||
Having understood the inner rhythms of human strengths, weaknesses, and caprices,
and its ups and downs, the supreme puruṣa harnesses help suitable for each jīva.
He has the protection of dharma as his sole goal, 
the dark cloud that is celebrated for raining its own bliss, the tender one.

|| iti śam ||

Note

ಕಾಲವಿಪರ್ಯಾಸದಿ ಕಲಿ-
ಯಾಳಿಕೆಯಲಿ ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತಿಗೃಹಸಂಕರದೊಳ್  ।
ಬಾಳು ಗುರಿ ತಪ್ಪದಂದದಿ
ಚಾಲಿಸಲಿಹ ಬೆಳಕು ನಮಗೆ ಗೀತಾದೀಪಮ್  ।। ೧ ।।
In adverse times, in the reign of Kali,
amidst commingling of creeds, guilds and clans,
our light to lead life without going astray,
is the lamp of the Gītā.

ಕಷ್ಟಂ  ಬಹಿರಾಚಾರಂ
ದೃಷ್ಟಿಯೊಳಿರ್ಕಂತರಂಗ-ಶುಚಿತೆ-ಯದೆಂದುಮ್  । 
ದುಷ್ಟಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಭಗವ-
ನ್ನಿಷ್ಠೆಯೊಳಾತ್ಮವನು  ನೆಲಸೆ ಗೀತಾಭ್ಯಾಸಮ್  ।। ೨ ।।
Difficult is external practice ever,
while the focus is on inner purity.
Establishing the self in Bhagavān,
even amidst evils, is the practice of the Gītā.

Gist

It is possible to find solutions to contemporary problems such as the crumbling edifice of the varṇa system, complications concomitant with new professions, and the issues stemming from contact with other countries and cultures by applying the Gītā in our lives. However, such solutions require firm trust in the efficacy of the Gītā as well as an understanding of its universal principles borne out by reasoned reflection. Teachings of the Gītā such as the acceptance of the principle of dharma and restraint in pleasure are applicable to all of mankind.

Myriad are reasons for mental turmoil - be they political disarray, economic competition, employer-employee friction, the primacy of making money, or squabbles among nations. Even so, it is not impossible even today to make a just living. It is possible as well as imperative, even now, for the devotees of the Gītā to maintain, among others, a restraint in pleasure, moral rectitude, and the sanctity of the man-woman relationship.

We have insisted again and again in this lecture series that the Gītā teaches the primacy of human effort. It is the same teaching that is dwelt upon in this concluding chapter. Human effort tempered by bhakti is indeed the redeemer. To that extent, the modern scientific quest for truth, courage, and enthusiasm for life are necessary for us.

To be continued...

The present series is a modern English translation of DVG’s Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award-winning work, Bhagavad-gītā-tātparya or Jīvana-dharma-yoga. The translators wish to express their thanks to Śatāvadhāni R Ganesh for his valuable feedback and to Hari Ravikumar for his astute edits.

Author(s)

About:

Devanahalli Venkataramanayya Gundappa (1887-1975) was a great visionary and polymath. He was a journalist, poet, art connoisseur, philosopher, political analyst, institution builder, social commentator, social worker, and activist.

Translator(s)

About:

Engineer. Lapsed blogger. Abiding interest in Sanskrit, religion, and philosophy. A wannabe jack-of-all.

About:

Mother of two. Engineer. Worshiper of Indian music, poetry, and art.

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Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...

Yaugandharam

इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...

Vanitakavitotsavah

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Vaiphalyaphalam

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Nipunapraghunakam

इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।

Bharavatarastavah

अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...

Bharatilochana

ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...

Vagarthavismayasvadah

“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...