Jñāneśvarī – Unsullied by Time (Part 3)

The Exuberant Play of Upamās (Part 2)

In the thirteenth chapter, while explaining the word ‘adambhitva’ (freedom from hypocrisy, sincerity), he says even when a miser has a threat to his life, he doesn’t reveal where he has hidden his wealth; similarly a person should never speak about the good deeds he has done to the other. That is adambhitva. Just as a nasty cow doesn’t let her master milk her and keeps the milk for herself, just as a rich traveller hides his money, just as a lady of good character covers her body, just as a farmer covers up the sown seeds with soil, a person filled with sattva does not reveal his good deeds.

A jñāni (wise person, realized soul) is described in the following manner by Jñāneśvara: A banana plant, which is hollow from inside gives a fruit that is rich in taste. A cloud that is as light as smoke can produce heavy torrents of rain. So also, a jñāni who might appear rather ordinary from the outside is brilliant from within and spreads luminescence all around.

Jñānadeva gives an example to demonstrate how simple words can have profound meanings. When seen from below, the sun appears not bigger than one’s palm. But the three worlds do not suffice to capture his brilliance. Similar are these words, which are deceivingly simple.

He says, “…bolī arupāce rupa dāvīna, atīṃdriya parī bhogavīna, iṃdriyāṃkaravīṃ.”[1] – I make abstract concepts concrete through my words. I bring within the realm of experience those things that can’t be grasped by the senses.

hātāṃceṃ karaṇeṃ kā pāyāṃceṃ cālaṇeṃ
teṃ hoya majakāraṇeṃ taiseṃ karīṃ[2]

The movement of your hands,
the running around of your legs –
may all that be aligned to me (i.e. to the Supreme)

maga pārthā tiye ṭhāyīṃ sādhya sādhana hoya nāhīṃ
kiṃbahunā tuja kāṃhīṃ ureci nā[3]

Arjuna, all that you undertake for yourself or for others –
offer all that to me; let that be your yajña
Having attained this state, there remains
nothing else to do, no other duties to fulfil!

The Jñāneśvarī contains not merely the elaboration of lines from the Bhagavad-gītā. Jñānadeva has elaborated upon several relevant points that aren’t too clear in the original. For instance, the sixth adhyāya of the Gītā contains portions with Tāntric details such as what kind of a place should be chosen for yoga sādhanā (practice of yoga). He provides details about Kuṇḍalinī-yoga. He has hailed Aṣṭāṅga-yoga as ‘Pantha-rāja,’ the king of paths.

Beauty in Every Utterance

Jñāneśvara has attempted to fill beauty in every word of the Jñāneśvarī

mhaṇauni akṣarīṃ subhedīṃ upamā śloka koṃdākoṃdī
jhāḍā deīna pratipadīṃ graṃthārthāsī[4]

Jñānadeva avers that all śāstras (subjects, treatises) other than adhyātma-śāstras (spiritual treatises) are apramāṇas – i.e. not authoritative, not credible. He calls a person who lacks a spiritual perspective but has merely dedicated himself in procuring knowledge of the śāstras as a ‘learned idiot.’ In Jñānadeva’s view there is no wall separating jñāna and bhakti. Bhakti is the result of jñāna. As long as the body lives, one cannot escape from karmas (actions). He opines that only if the karmas are offered to the deity with bhakti, just as flowers are offered, can mukti (Ultimate release) be attained.

loha ubheṃ khāya mātī teṃ parīsāciye saṃgatīṃ
soneṃ jālayā puḍhatī na śivije maḻeṃ[5]

A piece of iron fallen in the mud can rust;
after it’s transformed into gold
by contact with a touchstone,
mud cannot tarnish it

jeṇeṃ saprapaṃca ajñāna jāye yeku mī gocaru hoye
teṃ upapattīceni upāyeṃ gītārūpa heṃ[6]

I’ve explained to you in a methodical way
the knowledge given by Gītā
This removes all ignorance
and leads to Self-knowledge

nā nā sāṃḍileni kavaḻeṃ caṃdrīṃceṃ dhuye piṃvaḻeṃ
vyādhityāgeṃ kaḍuvāḻeṃ- paṇa mukhāceṃ[7]

Cured of cataract, one no longer sees the moon as yellow
Once cured of disease, the tongue gives up its bitterness
Once the sun goes down the horizon,
no mirages are seen

Nāmadeva, who was not just a contemporary but also a close associate of Jñāneśvara praises his life and achievements in innumerable abhaṅgs of his.

Bhavya-jīvana – A Splendid Life

Legend has it that when Jñāneśvara was about fifteen years of age (c. 1290 ce) he had the entire Jñāneśvarī written by Saccidānanda Bābā who was working as a kulakarṇi (accountant) in Nevase. After having composed Jñāneśvarī, Jñāneśvara lived only for six more years. He attained mukti in the Siddeśvara devālaya of Āḻandī even as he had lost himself in chanting the names of the divine in the company of Nāmadeva, Nivṛittinātha, and other noble souls.

There’s an interesting story behind the famous portrait of Jñāneśvara. There apparently lived a sage by named Gulābarāv in the province of Vidarbha. He performed tapas with the prayed – Let me have a vision of Jñāneśvara māulī. His prayers found fruition. He painted the image that manifested before his blind eyes through his eyes of wisdom. Even today the image of Jñāneśvara that lies in front of the eyes of millions of devotees is that image with him seated in padmāsana with his eyes slightly raised upwards; he wears an attractive turban, a shawl, an aṅga-vastra (a stole-like cloth worn on the upper part of the body), a pearl necklace, and a garland of flowers.

One can say that the life of Jñāneśvara was filled with turmoil. The main reason behind this was his father taking up saṃnyāsa and then returning to the life of a householder due to the pressure of circumstances. Because of this, the conservative society had branded their family as outcaste.

Jñānadeva (b. 1275 CE) was the second son of Viṭhalapanta and his wife Rukumā-bāi. Viṭhalapanta was a kulakarṇi in a place called Apegaon on the banks of the river Godavari in Maharashtra. Nivṛittinātha (b. 1273) was his first son. Jñānadeva had a young brother, Sopāna (b. 1277) and a younger sister, Muktā-bāi (b. 1279). These four siblings have lightened up the path of spirituality in our country. This is indeed a play of the divine.

Viṭhalapanta, who was declared by his own people as an outcaste along with his family took refuge in Tryambakeśvara (near modern-day Nasik). He lived there along with his wife and children, leading a pious life. Later in his life, he headed to Prayaga and ended his life through jala-samādhi. It is not mere coincidence that Jñānadeva was born on the occasion of Kṛṣṇa-janmāṣṭami.

Dīkṣā, dharma-prasāra

Nivṛittinātha, who had an inclination towards adhyātma from his younger days, received dīkṣā (initiation from the guru to take on a path of spirituality) from Gahinīnātha who was a student of Gorakṣanātha. Nivṛittinātha’s guru Gahinīnātha told him that he should teach his younger brother Jñānadeva everything he had learnt and that the latter had the potential as well as the divine resolution to achieve greatness. Accordingly, this traditional knowledge came down from Nivṛittinātha to Jñānadeva and from Jñānadeva to Sopāna and Muktā-bāi. There are several traditional stories that speak of several special siddhis displayed by Jñānadeva.

Jñānadeva travelled from one town to another spreading the word of dharma. Once he arrived at a place called Nevase that lies on the banks of the river Pravara in today’s Ahmednagar district. The people of the province requested him to reside there for a while. Jñāneśvara consented and the discourses he delivered to those people were compiled as the Bhāvārtha-dīpikā. This work, popular by the name of ‘Jñāneśvarī’ was composed around 1290 ce. After that, Jñāneśvara met his brothers and sister in Pandharpur. Starting from 1293, he travelled to several tīrtha-kṣetras (pilgrimage centres) in North India in the company of the great saint Nāmadeva. He gave up his body in 1296 on the thirteenth day of the śukla-pakṣa (the fortnight of the waxing moon) in the Hindu lunar month of Kārtika at Siddheśvara Sannidhi. Jñānadeva has also composed three works other than Bhāvārtha-dīpikā (the commentary on the Gītā) – Amṛtānubhava, Abhaṅga-gātha, and Cāṅgadeva-pāṣaṣṭi.

Jñānadeva’s writings are huge in terms of quantity as well. The Jñāneśvarī contains nine thousand Ovīs. The Amṛtānubhava consists of eight hundred verses, the Abhaṅga-gātha has around one thousand and one hundred abhaṅgs, and the Cāṅgadeva-pāṣaṣṭi has sixty-five poems. Such is the rich treasure-trove of literature that Jñānadeva produced.

The Jñāneśvarī and the Amṛtānubhava have his philosophical insights while the abhaṅgs document the experiences of a siddha who has attained aparokṣānubhava (direct perception of eternal bliss). The Jñāneśvarī has been translated into the major languages of India. Of late, Santa Jñāneśvara Harikathā Kīrtana Mahāvidyālaya has been established in Āḻandī and the traditional teaching of kīrtanas (songs) and regular lectures are organized.


The original Kannada essay, written to commemorate seven hundred years of the composition of the Jñāneśvarī, appeared in the 1990 October issue of the Utthāna monthly. ಡಾ॥ಎಸ್ ಆರ್ ರಾಮಸ್ವಾಮಿ. ಕವಳಿಗೆ (೨೦೧೪). ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೋತ್ಥಾನಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು. ಪು. ೬೩–೭೬ (“ಕಾಲದಿಂದ ಮಾಸದ ‘ಜ್ಞಾನೇಶ್ವರೀ’”)



[1] …बोली अरुपाचे रुप दावीन।

अतींद्रिय परी भोगवीन। इंद्रियांकरवीं॥ – Jñāneśvarī 6.36

[2] हातांचें करणें। का पायांचें चालणें।

तें होय मजकारणें। तैसें करीं॥ – Jñāneśvarī 18. 1358

[3] मग पार्था तिये ठायीं। साध्य साधन होय नाहीं।

किंबहुना तुज कांहीं। उरेचि ना॥ – Jñāneśvarī 18.1385

[4] म्हणौनि अक्षरीं सुभेदीं। उपमा श्लोक कोंदाकोंदी।

झाडा देईन प्रतिपदीं। ग्रंथार्थासी॥ – Jñāneśvarī 13.1164

[5] लोह उभें खाय माती। तें परीसाचिये संगतीं।

सोनें जालया पुढती। न शिविजे मळें॥ – Jñāneśvarī 18.1408

[6] जेणें सप्रपंच अज्ञान जाये। येकु मी गोचरु होये।

तें उपपत्तीचेनि उपायें। गीतारूप हें॥ – Jñāneśvarī 18.1388

[7] ना ना सांडिलेनि कवळें। चंद्रींचें धुये पिंवळें।

व्याधित्यागें कडुवाळें-। पण मुखाचें॥ – Jñāneśvarī 18.1393



Nadoja Dr. S R Ramaswamy is a renowned journalist, writer, art critic, environmentalist, and social activist. He has authored over fifty books and thousands of articles. He was a close associate of stalwarts like D. V. Gundappa, Rallapalli Anantakrishna Sharma, V Sitaramaiah, and others. He is currently the honorary Editor-in-Chief of Utthana and served as the Honorary Secretary of the Gokhale Institute of Public Affairs for many years.



Arjun is a writer, translator, engineer, and enjoys composing poems. He is well-versed in Sanskrit, Kannada, English, Greek, and German languages. His research interests lie in comparative aesthetics of classical Greek and Sanskrit literature. He has deep interest in the theatre arts and music. Arjun has (co-) translated the works of AR Krishna Shastri, DV Gundappa, Dr. SL Bhyrappa, Dr. SR Ramaswamy and Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh


Hari is an author, translator, editor, designer, and violinist with a deep interest in philosophy, education pedagogy, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited some forty books, mostly related to Indian culture.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...