In the present context, it would not be incorrect to say that the various expositions on sāmānya-dharma in the myriad smṛti texts have its origin in the conception of the eight ātma-guṇas in Gautama-dharma-sūtra, the fundamental kalpa-sūtra text.


Shivaswami Iyer was a Sanskrit scholar. V Krishnaswami Iyer was his friend, colleague, and sometimes an opponent in his profession as a lawyer. Krishnaswami Iyer founded a Saṃskṛta Mahāpāṭhaśālā in Mylapore, Madras and also established a medical school called Venkataramana Ayurvedic Dispensary. He too was a great scholar of Sanskrit and had compiled a Sanskrit work called Ārya-caritam.

Thomas Paine

But at the doctrinal level, this consequence is the direct outcome of imposing the selfsame untested theory of freedom, democracy, liberty and related ideas fashioned in the West on an entire people who had fashioned their lives for more than three millennia based on a thoroughly different political, cultural and social inheritance. In other words, an all-encompassing and far-reaching change was thrust upon the entire population of the seventh largest country in the world without their consent. Bharatavarsha continues to pay the human cost of this change.

Draupadī told Bhīma, “I cried out loud, pouring out my miseries, for I could not control my sorrow; not with a desire to criticize the Mahārāja. Let bygones be bygones; now we must take up the work at hand, that which is possible to accomplish. Every day, Sudeṣṇā looks at me and my body, and says in a tone of suspicion, “Will the king ever let her go if he sets eyes on her!” She constantly doubts my fidelity. Knowing her thoughts and temperament, her brother Kīcaka, himself an evil man, constantly asks for my hand and pleads with me.

ಅನುಮಾನಾಲಂಕಾರವು “ಅನುಮಾನ”ವೆಂಬ ತಾರ್ಕಿಕಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನೇ ಆಧರಿಸಿದೆ. ಇದನ್ನು ಕೆಲವರು ಅಲಂಕಾರವಾಗಿಯೇ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸರು. ಬಲುಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಕಾವ್ಯಲಿಂಗದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಇದು ಅಡಕವಾದೀತು. ಆದರೆ ಇಂಥ ಅಲಂಕಾರದಲ್ಲಿಯೂ ಆದಿಕವಿಗಳ ಕೌಶಲ ಪ್ರಸ್ಫುಟ.

ಮಳೆಗಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಮೋಡ ಕವಿದು ಸೂರ್ಯನ ಸುಳಿವೇ ಇಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದಾಗ ಸಂಜೆಯಾಗುವುದನ್ನು ತಾವರೆಗಳ ಮುದುಡುವಿಕೆಯಿಂದ, ಹಕ್ಕಿಗಳ ಗೂಡುಸೇರುವಿಕೆಯಿಂದ, ಜಾಜಿಹೂಗಳ ಅರಳುಗಳಿಂದ ಅನುಮಾನಿಸಬೇಕಿದೆ:

ನಿಲೀಯಮಾನೈರ್ವಿಹಗೈರ್ನಿಮೀಲದ್ಭಿಶ್ಚ ಪಂಕಜೈಃ |

ವಿಕಸಂತ್ಯಾ ಚ ಮಾಲತ್ಯಾ ಗತೋಸ್ತಂ ಜ್ಞಾಯತೇ ರವಿಃ || (೪.೨೮.೫೨)

Kalpa is one of the six Vedāṅgas (limbs of the Vedas).[1] The traditional view is that without the help of these Vedāṅgas, the real meaning of the Veda cannot be deciphered. The etymological expansion of the word ‘kalpa’ is ‘kalpante vā anena vedāḥ’ – it helps us understand the Vedas correctly; it ensures that we execute the Vedas in the right manner.

Lal Bagh

During 1934-35, during Sir Mirza Ismail's term as the Diwan of Mysore, there were many prominent men from Madras who would come to Bangalore to spend their summer here. P S Shivaswami Iyer was one such person. His ancestors belonged to aristocratic and affluent families and thus Shivawami Iyer was well off even by birth. Just as the saying goes, "Śucīnāṃ śrīmatām gehe," he was born to a wealthy family yet a noble, dignified, and morally upright one.


At the individual level, the Bhagavad Gita’s dictum of uddharedAtmanAtmAnam (Let a person raise and purify himself by his own efforts) and its emphasis on Svadharma also means that one must rule oneself, which in turn means that the onus is upon the individual to constantly rectify himself. Hidden within these tenets is a call to discard one’s ego at every step. The opaque wall of ego blocks the sunlight of self-reflection required for the said rectification.

Draupadī told Bhīma, “What is that which ails the wife of Yudhiṣṭhira? Knowing only too well all my sorrows, why do you ask me again? That Prātikāmi addressed me as ‘Hey maid-servant!” and dragged me to the court – even now I’m boiling with rage when I think about it. Putting up with such shame and sorrow, which other daughter of a king but for me would continue to be alive? When we lived in the forest, I was attacked by that wretched Saindhava. And here, Kīcaka kicked me in the presence of that evil king. Experiencing such difficulties, what is the use of staying alive?