I have passed two examinations in my life. One is the Lower Secondary[1] in Kannada. That was probably in 1898–99. At that time, there was no English [medium] school in our town. The second examination I cleared was the Lower Secondary in English, which was was probably in 1900. That is altogether a different story.


Manmatha continues to boast of his own skills in the pretext of praising his master:

तव प्रसादात्कुसुमायुधोऽपि सहायमेकं मधुमेव लब्ध्वा।

कुर्यां हरस्यापि पिनाकपाणेर्धैर्यच्युतिं के मम धन्विनोऽन्ये ॥ 3.10

Amaldar[1] Sitaramayya

Another instance.

Both of us were walking on the 3rd cross road of Basavanagudi. We heard someone singing when we came near a house. We stood there for a second and listened to the song. We do not know whose house it was. As I was looking around to ask someone, Murthy knocked on the door. Someone opened the door and asked

“Aren’t you Srirangapatna Subbarao’s son?”

When I was young, I aspired to become a paṭela (village headman, chief of a town). Not because the position would provide a lot of money. But because a paṭela is a free man; he need not wait for someone else’s orders. The respect of people for a village headman is immense; all the villagers obey his command.

In addition to these two attractions, there was another. A headman did not have the burden of schooling; no plight of exams and results.


There is a sacred tīrtha called Kanakhala near Gaṅgādvāra. In the past, a divine elephant called Kāñcanapāta broke open a mountain and let the Gaṅgā flow into the plains from there. In the region to the south of this town, a brāhmaṇa lived with his wife and performed tapas. He had three sons. After his death, his sons went to a place called Rājagṛha and acquired a lot of knowledge there. Though they became well educated, they were in immense pain, considering themselves as orphans. They headed towards Dakṣiṇāpatha seeking the darśana of Kumāra-svāmī.

3. Kāvya

This has three stages too.

1. Manaḥ-prasāda – The nāndī-padyas in a kāvya, the description of city, country, mountains, forests, rivers, forts, palaces – these establish a context for the story; these are the embellishments and charming aspects.

2. Bhāvāveśa – The core flavour lies in the scenes of the story and in the human characters. Tyagaraja  in one of his lyrical melodies narrates this story: