Literature

“ಧ್ವನ್ಯಾಲೋಕಲೋಚನ”ದ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ವೈಶಿಷ್ಟ್ಯಗಳು - 1

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In the World of Allegorical Poetry - Bhallatashatakam

Alam ativistareṇa. Let us delve right in.

नन्वाश्रयस्थितिरियं तव कालकूट
केनोत्तरोत्तरविशिष्टपदोपदिष्टा ।
प्रागर्णवस्य हृदये वृषलक्ष्मणोऽथ
कण्ठेऽधुना वससि वाचि पुनः खलानाम् ॥

O Kālakūṭa poison, who taught you to ascend to newer, better heights?
First you were submerged deep in the ocean,
Then you rose to live in Śiva's throat
And now you’re everywhere, in the words of scoundrels!

In the World of Allegorical Poetry

Literature has for its aim the creation of rasa, the aesthetic experience; it does not admit any other purpose. Bhaṭṭanāyaka stated this point blank – kāvye rasayitā sarvo na boddhā na niyogabhāk, ‘Literature offers enjoyment to every reader; as far as it is concerned, there exists neither an instructor nor an adherent.’ However, it is, at times, touted as a tool to prompt societal reform. This view is current not just among literary critics but also among the lay.

Rituals and Legends in Gruhabhanga of SL Bhyrappa: Distorting Myths

Another legend in Sl Bhyrappa's ‘Daatu’ relates to the belief that is prevalent among persons of 'lower castes' that if a Brahmin enters their slums, the deity of wealth, Lakshmi would go away from their houses. It is not known why and how this belief came into existence. When Venkataramanayya entered the ‘Harijana keri’, i.e., the area where Harijans (people belonging to 'lower castes') in his insane state of mind, he is pelleted with dung and shooed away like a mad dog, in keeping with the prevalent beliefs. The folk legend runs as follows:

Rituals and Legends in Gruhabhanga of SL Bhyrappa - Village Deities

‘Gruhabhanga’ is one of Bhyrappa’s profound yet simple and sad stories, set in the background of rural Karnataka. The novel presents the rites, rituals, witchcraft, village deities, and the beliefs of the villagers. Usually, the deity of the village is called ‘Ooramma’, or the mother of the village, and it is believed that she protects the village from epidemics like the plague, cholera and small pox. People belonging to all strata of society worship this deity, both individually and collectively.

The Myth of the deity Maramma in SL Bhyrappa's novel 'Daatu'

The concept of the deity Maramma is a fusion of mythical, folklorish and legendary elements. According to the prevalent belief, a woman of brahmin community burns herself, her husband and children, when she get to know that her husband, being an untouchable, had deceived her and her father, by telling them he was a brahmin youth. Thus the myth of the deity Maramma throws light on the social structure and the caste system of a particular period in India, specially in south lndia.

Musings on Indian Aesthetics: Contributions of Masters

III

We can have a look at some special features of Indian Aesthetics based on the foregoing discussions. The good and bad of the following ideas are self-accounted, for they are products of the present author’s humble intellect.

Similar to the unified theory of matter and energy, which modern science concerns itself with, we have a unified theory of rasa. A mathematical way of expressing it is attempted here:

Musings on Indian Aesthetics

नित्यौचित्यकरावलम्बरुचिरो वक्रोक्तिवर्तिस्तुतो

ध्वन्युद्दामशिखास्फुटोऽक्षयरसस्नेहस्समुद्द्योतयन्।

धन्यानां सुहृदां हृदि प्रतिपदं काव्यार्थमात्मोपमं

वाणीप्राणसमीरणो विजयते विद्याप्रदीपः कवेः॥

I

In the World of Logic and Grammar

Verbs alone are the lifeline of language; this is the opinion of Indian grammarians. But for our logicians (i.e. the proponents of the Nyāya [epistemology] and Vaiśeṣika [ontology] schools of philosophy), the subject indicated by the nominative case (prathamā vibhakti) alone is the lifeline of a language – i.e. the doer alone is the soul of language. The reason for this difference is crystal clear. Grammarians are śabdādvaitis (i.e.