Literature

The Significance of Travel in Epic traditions of the world - Part 2

A paper titled “A Study of the Significance of Travel in Classical Sanskrit Epics with Parallels in Greco-Roman Epics” was presented by Arjun Bharadwaj at the international seminar on “Sanskrit and Cultural Studies: New Perspectives” organized by the Sree Shankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady on 5th June 2017. The current article contains excerpts from the paper.

 

Travel in later epic poetry

The Significance of Travel in Epic traditions of the world - Part 1

A paper titled “A Study of the Significance of Travel in Classical Sanskrit Epics with Parallels in Greco-Roman Epics” was presented by Arjun Bharadwaj at the international seminar on “Sanskrit and Cultural Studies: New Perspectives” organized by the Sree Shankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady on 5th June 2017. The current article contains excerpts from the paper.

Pratimālā: The Lovely Garland from the World of Literary Games

In recent years, antyākṣarī programs in various forms, have been entertaining people. The Vividhabhāratī channel of Ākāśavāṇī (All India Radio) perhaps set the precedent decades earlier by broadcasting antyākṣarī programmes based on movie songs. In my childhood days, many programs were organized, in close circles – both friends and family, in schools and colleges, where youngsters participated in antyākṣarī programs based on film songs. Their enthusiasm for antyākṣarī made them forget other pastimes and leisure activities.

Kālidāsa’s Influence

Kālidāsa and Other Arts

From his works, it is clear that Kālidāsa had extensive knowledge of dance, music and painting. His knowledge of dance can be estimated from his play Mālavikāgnimitram. At the very beginning, he makes his famous remark about the stage.

नाट्यं भिन्नरुचेर्जनस्य बहुधाप्येकं समाराधनम् |
The stage is a one-stop entertainment solution for people of varied tastes and orientations.

ಗುಂಡ್ಲುಪಂಡಿತ ಶ್ರೀ ರಾಜರತ್ನ ಕೃತ ‘ಮಹಾಕವಿ ಪುರುಷಸರಸ್ವತಿ’

ವಿಡಂಬನೆಯೆಂಬುದು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಒಂದು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟಪ್ರಕಾರವಾಗಿದೆ. ವಿಡಂಬನೆ ಅಥವಾ ಅಣಕುವಾಡು ಎಂದರೆ ಮೂಲ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾದ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಶ್ರಯಿಸಿ ಅದೇ ಶೈಲಿಯನ್ನು ಅನುಕರಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೋ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಲಘುವಾಗಿಸುವ ಉದ್ದೇಶವಿದೆ ಎಂದಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾದ ಮಾರ್ಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಲಘುವಾದ ಹಾಸ್ಯಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವನ್ನು  ತಂದಾಗ ಹುಟ್ಟುವ ಆಸ್ವಾದನೀಯತೆ ಅವರ್ಣ್ಯ! ಹೀಗೆ  ಯಾವುದೋ ಒಂದು ಕೃತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಶ್ರಯಿಸಿ ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಅಣಕುವಾಡನ್ನು ರಚಿಸುವುದು ಬಹಳ ಹಿಂದಿನಿಂದಲೂ ನಡೆದುಬಂದಿದೆ. ಕಾಳಿದಾಸನ ಮೇಘದೂತವನ್ನು ಕಂಡು ಅದರಂತೆಯೇ ಬಂದ ದೂತಕಾವ್ಯಗಳ ಪರಂಪರೆಯನ್ನು ಅವಲೋಕಿಸಿದರೆ ಸಾಕು ಅದರ ವೈಶಾಲ್ಯವನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಯಬಹುದು.

Message of Kālidāsa

As noted earlier, Kālidāsa has been the greatest yet most graceful exponent of Indian values. He has upheld the highest values of our tradition at the individual, societal and universal levels. He advocates an austere but aggressive pursuit of prosperity. Likewise, he advocates a moral but intense pursuit of desires. It is summed up in one verse describing how King Dilīpa was.

Kālidāsa and Hermitages

Kālidāsa has probably provided us with the finest pictures of the pure life led by sages in hermitages. It is among the many things that he has pioneered. From his description of life in hermitages, it is clear that a sage is one who is more humane than most humans. It is because of this that he becomes divine in the larger sense. It is not as if he has no concerns; it is just that he is concerned about everything around him. And it is not as if he has given up everything; it is just that he accommodates everything.

Kālidāsa and Similes (Part 1)

Kālidāsa is known as the master of similes. The Sanskrit tradition has proclaimed it as ‘Upamā Kālidāsasya.’ The variety, depth and appropriateness of his similes remains unsurpassed to this day. A study of his similes is itself an education in many branches of knowledge. Instead of confining ourselves strictly to the similes, we can look at the superset called sādṛṣyamūlālaṅkāra. Dṛṣṭānta (Analogy) and atiśayokti (hyperbole) also fall into the same category. The following selection from his works will be a veritable treat to rasikas.