Ritualistic walking on burning coals is one of the popular rites that is still observed in many places. In ‘Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane’, too this ceremony takes place. The ritual is also described elaborately in ‘Nayi-Neralu’. This is a ritual that is conducted once a year, in front of the temple dedicated to the Goddess. Many people take religious vows to walk on live coals, and pray to the goddess for fulfilment of their wishes.
The current series examines the literary and aesthetic value of the verses of Kṛṣṇakarṇāmṛtam and wherever possible, touches upon their application to music, dance and painting. The present part gives a brief introduction to the poet, his work and describes a few verses.
“ಲೋಚನ”ದ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ಮಹತ್ತ್ವಪೂರ್ಣಸಂಗತಿಗಳು
ನಿಖಿಲಚಾರುಕಲಾರುಚಿರಂ ಚಿರಮ್ |
ತ್ವಭಿನವಂ ಪ್ರಣತೋऽಸ್ಮಿ ಸುಮೋಪಮಮ್ ||
Alam ativistareṇa. Let us delve right in.
नन्वाश्रयस्थितिरियं तव कालकूट
प्रागर्णवस्य हृदये वृषलक्ष्मणोऽथ
कण्ठेऽधुना वससि वाचि पुनः खलानाम् ॥
O Kālakūṭa poison, who taught you to ascend to newer, better heights?
First you were submerged deep in the ocean,
Then you rose to live in Śiva's throat
And now you’re everywhere, in the words of scoundrels!
Literature has for its aim the creation of rasa, the aesthetic experience; it does not admit any other purpose. Bhaṭṭanāyaka stated this point blank – kāvye rasayitā sarvo na boddhā na niyogabhāk, ‘Literature offers enjoyment to every reader; as far as it is concerned, there exists neither an instructor nor an adherent.’ However, it is, at times, touted as a tool to prompt societal reform. This view is current not just among literary critics but also among the lay.
Another legend in Sl Bhyrappa's ‘Daatu’ relates to the belief that is prevalent among persons of 'lower castes' that if a Brahmin enters their slums, the deity of wealth, Lakshmi would go away from their houses. It is not known why and how this belief came into existence. When Venkataramanayya entered the ‘Harijana keri’, i.e., the area where Harijans (people belonging to 'lower castes') in his insane state of mind, he is pelleted with dung and shooed away like a mad dog, in keeping with the prevalent beliefs. The folk legend runs as follows:
‘Gruhabhanga’ is one of Bhyrappa’s profound yet simple and sad stories, set in the background of rural Karnataka. The novel presents the rites, rituals, witchcraft, village deities, and the beliefs of the villagers. Usually, the deity of the village is called ‘Ooramma’, or the mother of the village, and it is believed that she protects the village from epidemics like the plague, cholera and small pox. People belonging to all strata of society worship this deity, both individually and collectively.
The concept of the deity Maramma is a fusion of mythical, folklorish and legendary elements. According to the prevalent belief, a woman of brahmin community burns herself, her husband and children, when she get to know that her husband, being an untouchable, had deceived her and her father, by telling them he was a brahmin youth. Thus the myth of the deity Maramma throws light on the social structure and the caste system of a particular period in India, specially in south lndia.
Similar to the unified theory of matter and energy, which modern science concerns itself with, we have a unified theory of rasa. The following is its mathematical representation:
R = (V×D)au OR R = V × an ʃ au D
(R = Rasa, V = Vakrokti, D = Dhvani, au = Aucitya, and an = Anaucitya)