Upanayana in the Vedas

This article is part 6 of 15 in the series Upanayana

Upanayana in the Saṃhitās

Some of the characteristics of the upanayana described in the gṛhya-sūtras are seen in the Ṛgveda-saṃhitā itself.[1] The sacrificial post (yūpa-stambha) is praised as a young person – “Here comes the youth, well-dressed and encircled (the boy by his mekhalā and the post by its rasana); he, when born, attains eminence; ṛṣis, full of devotion to the deities in their hearts and entertaining happy thoughts, raise him up.”[2]

The word ‘brahmacarya’ is mentioned twice in the Ṛgveda-saṃhitā in the sense of the life of a religious student.[3] There is also a reference to a student who has just performed his upanayana saṃskāra.[4]

An entire sūkta in the Atharvaveda[5] contains a larger-than-life praise of the brahmacārī and brahmacarya. We get from it several details about the upanayana saṃskāra. The Vedic student was called ‘brahmacārī’ and the teacher was called ‘ācārya.’ Here is a gist of the sūkta[6] – “The brahmacārī incessantly covering (the world by his glory) roams in the two worlds; the gods have the same thoughts (of grace and favour about him; he fills his teacher by his austerities.”[7] It then says, “The teacher leading (the boy) near him makes the brahmacārī like unto a foetus.”[8] The next verse states that the heaven and the earth are the ‘samidh’ (the fuel stick) of the brahmacārī and that the brahmacārī by his samidh, mekhalā (girdle), and life of hard work fill the world with austerities.[9] It further tells us that the brahmacārī wears the skin of a black antelope and has an unshaven face.[10] The broad earth and the sky – these were believed to be first bought as bhikṣā (alms) by the brahmacārī.[11] It goes on to say that the brahmacārī offers samidh into fire, (or if fire is no available) to the sun, to the moon, to the wind, or into waters.[12] Dr. Kane says, “This hymn thus brings out most of the characteristic features of the brahmacārī and of upanayana (viz. ajina, mekhalā, offering of samidh, begging and a life of hard work and restraint).”[13] Perhaps the upanayana was performed at an earlier age for the boy in the age of the Sūtras compared to that of the Saṃhitās.[14]

Upanayana in the Brāhmaṇas

During the Brāhmaṇa period, the upanayana slowly took on the shape of a detailed ceremony[15] and this procedure formed the prototype for the later gṛhya-sūtras.[16]

The Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa[17] contains several details about the life of brahmacāris and they greatly resemble those explained in the later gṛhya-sūtras.[18] Here is a brief summary: The boy goes to the ācārya and says, “I have come unto brahmacarya” and “let me be a brahmacārī.” The ācārya asks him, “What is your name?” Then the teacher takes him near (upanayati). He takes hold of the boy’s hand with the words: “You are the brahmacārī of Indra; Agni is your teacher, I am your teacher[19], O Rāghava![20]” Then he consigns the boy to the care of the elements. The ācārya tells him, “Drink water. Work in the guru’s house, put a samidh in the agni (sacred fire). Do not sleep during day-time.” He repeats the Sāvitrī (mantra sacred to Savitṛ). Formerly it was repeated a year after the boy came as a brahmacārī, then at the end of six months, twenty-four days, twelve days, three days; but one should repeat to the brāhmaṇa boy the verse at once (on the very day of upanayana); the teacher repeats it to him first each pada separately, then the half and then the whole.[21] After the student was taught the Gāyatrī mantra, the teacher had to observe continence for three days.

When the brahmacārī enters student-hood, he gives a fourth part of himself to Agni, to Death, to the ācārya, and to himself.[22] By offering samidh to agni, he secures freedom from the first.[23] Through bhikṣā, he secures freedom from the second.[24] By working in the ācārya’s house, he secures freedom from the third.[25] The brahmacārin protects the ācārya, his house, and his cattle, with the idea that otherwise he might be taken away from them.[26] After the brahmacārī finishes student-hood and upon the completion of samāvartana, he should not beg for alms.[27]

Upanayana in the Upaniṣads

By the time of the Upaniṣads, the concept of the four āśramas was probably established and brahmacarya—the life of a student—became an institution. The importance of a teacher was recognized even for the highest wisdom.[28] Even in this period, the upanayana often perhaps just meant going to a guru and seeking admission as a pupil. However, the admission was not open to all. The applicants had to fulfil certain prerequisites as laid down by the guru. A famous verse states that knowledge should not be imparted to the disbelieving, to the wicked, and to the vicious ones.[29]

The brahmacārī lived and ate in the guru’s house[30] possibly for free; and in exchange took care of the needs of the guru, like tending his cattle, looking after the agni, begging for food, etc.[31] The guru was given the highest respect. Dedication and devotion to the guru was deemed necessary for the highest kind of knowledge.[32]

Typically a student started his education when he was twelve and studied until he was twenty-four.[33] However, based on the interest and the ability of the student, it could be shorter or longer. Every time a student approached a new guru, he had to perform upanayana again.[34] This again indicates that the ritual must have been a simple affair during that period.       

We learn from the Upaniṣads that the would-be student approached the ācārya with samidh in his hand and requested the teacher to take him into his fold. He sought entry into brahmacarya.[35] He expressed his willingness to serve the guru.[36] There were some ceremonies that were part of the upanayana even then. When Aśvapati Kekaya was approached by Prācīnaśāla Aupamanyava and four others who carried fuel in their hands (like young students) and who were grown-up householders and teachers of Veda, ‘he (Aśvapati) without submitting them to the rites of Upanayana began the discourse.’[37] When Satyakāma Jābāla tells the truth about his gotra (lineage) to Gautama Hāridrumata, the latter says “Dear boy, fetch the samidh, I shall initiate you! You have not swerved from the truth.”[38]

Students in former ages approached the guru for brahmacarya only using words (i.e. without any further solemn rite or ceremony).[39] In the most ancient times it is probable that the father himself always taught his son.[40] However, from the times of the Taittirīya- saṃhitā itself the student went to a guru and stayed in his house. Uddālaka Āruṇi, a profound philosopher, sends his son Śvetaketu to a teacher to learn the Vedas.[41] In fact, the āśrama of brahmacarya has been described as ‘living as a brahmacārī in the house of a guru, mortifying his body in the guru’s house till his end.’[42]

We also learn from the upaniṣads that the guru enquired of the student’s gotra so that he may address the student by that name.[43] Typically, the brahmacārī had to beg for food[44], look after the fire of his guru[45], and had to tend his guru’s cattle.[46]

To be continued…

Thanks to Pradeep Chakravarthy for getting me to write this essay. Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh and Dr. Koti Sreekrishna, who have always supported and encouraged me, were kind enough to go through the essay and give their detailed feedback. Shashi Kiran B N, a young scholar-poet went through the essay and offered valuable suggestions. Yet another scholar-poet, Arjun Bharadwaj, helped me with getting some of the reference books needed for this essay. My heartfelt gratitude to all of them.


Achari, Sri Rama Ramanuja. Saskāras: The Hindu Sacraments. Srimatham, 2015 <http://www.srimatham.com/uploads/5/5/4/9/5549439/hindu_samskaras.pdf>

Devuḍu. Mahādarśana. Bangalore: Devuḍu Pratiṣṭhāna, 2009

H H Sri Rangapriya Swami’s lecture on the Gāyatrī mantra

Harshananda, Swami. Upanayana: Sandhyāvandana and Gāyatrīmantrajapa. Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math.

Harshananda, Swami. A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. Volume 3. R-Z. Bangalore: Ramakrishna Math, 2008

Kane, Pandurang Vaman. History of Dharmaśāstra. Vol. II, Part I. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1941

Pandey, Rajbali. Hindu Saskāras: Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass, 1969

Ṛgvedasaṃhitā. Vol. 17. Ed. Rao, H. P. Venkata. Mysore: Sri Jayachamarajendra Vedaratnamala, 1948-62

Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh’s seven-part lecture series in Kannada titled Ṣoḍaśa-saṃskāragaḻu at Gokhale Institute of Public Affairs (GIPA) in December 2005

The Sixteen Samskaras <http://cincinnatitemple.com/articles/SixteenSamskaras.pdf>


[1] Yuvā suvāsāḥ parivīta āgāt sa u śreyān bhavati jāyamānaḥ. Taṃ dhīrāsaḥ kavaya unnayanti svādhyo manasā devayantaḥ. – Ṛgveda-saṃhitā 3.8.4. Here, ‘unnayanti’ has the same root as upanayana.

Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra 1.19.8—’Alaṅkṛtaṃ kumāraṃ...ahatena vāsasā saṃvītaṃ...’—prescribes that the boy should wear new clothes and should be adorned

[2] HDS, p. 269
[3] Ṛgveda-saṃhitā 10.109.5
[4] Ṛgveda-saṃhitā 3.8.4-5
[5] Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.1-26
[6] HDS, p. 270
[7] Brahmacārīṣṇaṃścarati rodasī ubhe tasmin devāḥ saṃmanaso bhavanti. Sa dādhāra pṛthivīṃ divaṃ ca sa ācāryaṃ tapasā piparti. Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.1
[8] Ācārya upanayamāno brahmacāriṇaṃ kṛṇute garbham antaḥ. Taṃ rātrīstisra udare bibharti taṃ jātaṃ draṣṭum abhisaṃyanti devāḥ.Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.3
[9] Iyaṃ samit pṛthivī dyaurdvitīyotāntarikṣaṃ samidhā pṛṇāti. Brahmacārī samidhā mekhalayā śrameṇa lokāṃstapasā piparti. Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.4
[10] Brahmacāryeti samidhā samiddhaḥ kārṣṇaṃ vasāno dīkṣito dīrghaśmaśruḥ. Sa sadya eti pūrvasmāduttaraṃ samudraṃ lokāntsaṃgṛbhya muhurācarikrat. Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.6
[11] Imāṃ bhūmiṃ pṛthivīṃ brahmacārī bhikṣām ā jabhāra prathamo divaṃ ca. Te kṛtvā samidhāvupāste tayorārpitā bhuvanāni viśvā. Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.5.9
[12] Agnau sūrye candramasi mātariśvan brahmacāryapsu samidham ā dadhāti. Tāsām arcīṃṣi pṛthagabhre caranti tāsām ājyaṃ puruṣo varṣam āpaḥ. Atharvaveda-saṃhitā 11.7.13
[13] HDS, p. 270
[14] Ibid.
[15] See Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa 1.2.1-8
[16] For example, see Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra 2.2.5
[17] Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[18] HDS, p. 271
[19] Indra was considered the first teacher; this was perhaps a suggestion that the indriyas—both karmendriyas (hands, feet, mouth, genitals, and anus) and jñānendriyas (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin)—must be in good shape. Agni was the second teacher; this was perhaps an indication that the boy must burn his desires in the fire of knowledge. The physical teacher came third.
[20] The teacher addresses the boy by his name; in this essay, I have chosen the name Rāghava.
[21] Brahmacaryamāgāmityāha... brahmacāryasānītyāha... Athainamāha ko nāmāsīti ...athāsya hastaṃ gṛhṇāti. Indrasya brahmacāryasi agnirācāryastavāhamācāryastavāsāviti. ...athainaṃ bhūtebhyaḥ paridadāti. ...adbhyastvauṣadhībhyaḥ paridadāmīti. ...apo’śā netyamṛtaṃ...karma kuru... samidhamādhehīti... mā śuṣupthā iti. ...athāsmai sāvitrīmanvāha. Tāṃ ha smaitāṃ purā saṃvatsare’nvāhuḥ... Atha ṣaṭsu māseṣu... Atha caturviṃśatyahe... Atha dvādaśāhe... Atha tryahe. ...tadapi ślokaṃ gāyanti. Ācāryo garbhī...brāhmaṇa iti. Sadyo ha tvāva brāhmaṇāyānubrūyādāgneyo vai brāhmaṇaḥ. ...tāṃ vai pacco’nvāha... athārdharcaśo... atha kṛtsnāmeko... Tadāhuḥ. – Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[22] Caturdhā bhūtāni praviśati agnim padā mṛtyūm padācāryam padātmanyevāsya caturthaḥ pādaḥ pariśiṣyate. – Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[23] Sa yadagnaye samidhamāharati ya evāsyāgnau pādastameva tena parikrīṇāti...Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[24] Atha yadātmānaṃ daridrīkṛtyeva ahrīrbhūtvā bhikṣate ya evāsya mṛtyau pādastameva tena parikrīṇāti... Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[25] Atha yadācāryavacasaṃ karoti yadācāryāya karma karoti ya evāsyācārye pādastameva tena parikrīṇāti...Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[26] Tasmādbrahmacāriṇa ācāryaṃ gopāyanti. Gṛhānpaśūnnenno’paharāniti. – Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa
[27] Gopatha-brāhmaṇa 2.3 and Baudhāyana-dharma-sūtra 1.2.53
[28] Ācāryastu te gatiṃ vaktā...Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.14.1
[29] Etadguhyatamaṃ nāputrāya nāśiṣyāya nāśāntāya kīrtayediti ananyabhaktāya sarvaguṇasampannāya dadyāt. – Maitrāyaṇyupaniṣad 6.29
[30] A student was called ‘ācāryakulavāsin’ or ‘antevāsin’ (See Chāndogyopaniṣad 3.2.5, 4.10.1)
[31] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.3.5
[32] Yasya deve parā bhaktiryathā deve tathā gurau. Tasyaite kathitā hyarthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ. – Śvetāśvataropaniṣad 6.23
[33] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.1.2; also see Chāndogyopaniṣad 2.23.1, 4.10.1, 6.1.2
[34] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.1.2
[35] The word ‘brahmacarya’ occurs in Kaṭhopaniṣad 1.1.15, Muṇḍakopaniṣad 2.1.7, Chāndogyopaniṣad 6.1.1 and other upaniṣads.
[36] See Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad 6.2.1; Chāndogyopaniṣad 5.6, 4.5.5, 5.11.7; Maitrāyaṇyupaniṣad 1.2.12
[37] ...te ha samitpāṇayaḥ pūrvāhṇe praticakramire tānhānupanīyaivaitaduvācaChāndogyopaniṣad 5.11.7
[38] ...samidhaṃ somyāharopa tvā neṣye na satyādagā itiChāndogyopaniṣad 4.4.5
[39] Upaimyahaṃ bhavantamiti vācā ha smaiva pūrva upayanti sa hopāyanakīrtyovāsa Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad 6.2.7
[40] See Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad 6.2.1 – ‘Anuśiṣṭonvasi pitretyomiti hovāca.’ Viśvarūpa commenting on Yājñavalkyasmṛti 1.15 says, ‘Gurugrahaṇaṃ tu mukhyaṃ piturupanetṛtvamiti. Tathā ca śrutiḥ. Tasmātputramanuśiṣṭaṃ lokasyamāhuriti. Ācāryopanayanaṃ tu brāhmaṇasyānukalpaḥ
[41] Śvetaketurhāruṇeya āsa taṃ ha pitovāca śvetaketo vasa brahmacaryaṃ... Sa ha dvādaśa varṣa upetya caturviṃśativarṣaḥ sarvānvedānadhītya mahāmanā anūcānamānī stabdha eyāya taṃ ha pitovāca. Śvetaketo... uta tamādeśamaprākṣyaḥ yenāśrutaṃ śrutaṃ bhavati. – Chāndogyopaniṣad 6.1.1-3
[42] Chāndogyopaniṣad 2.23.1. This refers to the naiṣṭikabrahmacārin
[43] ...hovāca kiṃgotro nu somyāsīti...Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.4.4
[44] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.3.5
[45] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.10.1-2
[46] Chāndogyopaniṣad 4.4.5




Hari is an author, translator, editor, designer, and violinist with a deep interest in philosophy, education pedagogy, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited some forty books, mostly related to Indian culture.

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Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...