Mahābhārata – Pauloma and Āstīka-upaparvas

This article is part 4 of 22 in the series Vacana Bhārata by Prof A.R. Krishna Sastri

Adhyāyas 4-12. Pauloma-parva

The adhyāyas from 4 to 12 form the Pauloma-parva. Just like the anukramaṇikā (prologue), this section starts with a prose passage.

रोमहर्षणपुत्र उग्रश्रवाः सूतः पौराणिको नैमिषारण्ये शौनकस्य कुलपतेर्द्वादशवार्षिके सत्रे |

(Sūta-paurāṇika Ugraśrava, the son of Romaharṣaṇa during the twelve year long satra conducted by Śaunaka in the Naimiṣāraṇya,....)

This is followed by a few more lines of prose and verses. When Ugraśrava, the Sūta-paurāṇika, asks them which story they would like to hear, they replied, “Our kulapati Śaunaka is now in the agni- gṛha (the place where the three sacred fires i.e., gārhapatya, āhavanīya and dakṣiṇa are housed). Let him come and we shall consult him. You may kindly narrate the story that he wishes to hear.” Upon the completion of his work, Śaunaka joined them and told Ugraśrava that he wished to listen to the stories of his ancestors. Śaunaka belonged to the Bhṛgu-vaṃśa (lineage of seer Bhṛgu) and so the Sūta-Paurāṇika starts narrating the stories of that lineage. Starting from the seer Bhṛgu, he narrated the story of Bhṛgu’s son Cyavana, his son Pramati, his son Ruru, and Śunaka, who was Ruru’s son. How did the name Cyavana arise? The next two adhyāyas are dedicated to answering this question. A rākṣasa by name Puloma harassed Pulomā, Bhṛgu’s pregnant wife and her foetus was ‘cyuta’ (separated, fell) from her womb and hence the name ‘Cyavana.’ (Since this segment mainly deals with the story of Puloma and Pulomā, it is called the Pauloma-parva.) Later, Ruru marries Pramadvarā. (Just like Śakuntalā, Pramadvarā too was a daughter of Menakā; she was born through a gandharva named Viśavasu. Menakā abandoned the infant on the banks of a river, where the seer Sthūlakeśa found her; he raised her as his own child.) Pramadvarā dies of a snake-bite and Ruru rejuvenates her by offering half of his own life-years. Because of this, he develops animosity towards all snakes and kills every snake that caught his eye.

Once, when Ruru had raised his hand to kill a water-snake by name Ḍuṇḍubha, the snake said, “I’m not a poisonous snake. Non-poisonous snakes are not dangerous. Further, I’ve turned into a snake due to a curse. Now I am released from the curse, thanks to you. A brāhmaṇa  should not harm animals. To punish is a kṣatriya’s job. In the past, when Janamejaya was performing the sarpa-yāga, a brāhmaṇa  named Āstīka  stopped it. (This portion of the story is yet to take place in the sequence of events. Also, this Janamejaya is a different one and belongs to the previous kalpa. The commentators’ explanation for this is merely that all these events have a cyclic repetition and had also taken place in previous kalpas. It is also possible that different recensions of the Upakramaṇikā  portion have got mixed up and this inconsistency in the sequence of events has crept in.) Ruru asks Ḍuṇḍubha, “How did the kṣatriya Janamejaya punish the snakes? Why did he do so? And why did Āstīka  come to their rescue?” The seer who had been freed from the curse told Ruru, “Āstīka ’s is a long story. Ask any brāhmaṇa  and he will tell you!” Saying so, Ḍuṇḍubha vanished. Ruru learns of this story from his father Pramati.


Adhyāya 13-53. Āstīka-parva

Āstīka (upa-) parva ranges from the thirteenth to the fifty-third adhyāya. This is ancient history narrated by Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana. Ugraśrava’s father Lomaharṣa (also called Romaharṣaṇa) also narrated this to the brāhmaṇas. The Sūta-paurāṇika Ugraśrava, upon hearing this story from his father, retells it to Śaunaka and other sages (Adhyāya 13, verses 6-8). The main story of this segment is as follows:

Image courtesy:- Google image search

The king Parikṣit who has gone hunting encounters a seer in silent meditation, whom he interrogates regarding the whereabouts of the deer that he had just shot. The seer remains mute. The enraged king, with mischievous intent, garlands the seer with a dead snake. Śṛṅgi, the son of seer Śamīka, who happens to come there, notices this prank and curses King Parikṣit to die of a snake-bite. The curse finds its fulfillment in Parikṣit’s death due to a snake-bite. To avenge his father’s death, Janamejaya vows to eliminate the entire serpentine species and undertakes the sarpa-yāga. While the yāga was in progress, Āstīka—the son of the serpent-king Vāsuki’s sister—comes to Janamejaya, praises him and his undertaking of the yāga, gains his confidence, and requests him to stop the yāga. King Janamejaya, who was well-versed in dharma, knew that it was only correct to fulfill the wish of a brāhmaṇa  while a yāga was in progress; accordingly he acquiesces to Āstīka’s request and stops the sarpa-yāga. Delighted, Āstīka goes away.


When the sarpa-yāga was going on, during the breaks, Vaiśampāyana narrated the story of the Bhāratas. This has become a great epic since the story constantly branches out in various directions but eventually keeps finding its way back to the root-story.


Āstīka’s father Jaratkāru was once immersed in tapas and had given up thoughts about marriage. His ancestors, the Yāyāva sages, were deeply saddened since Jaratkāru’s celibacy would put an end to their lineage. In order to pay tributes to the ancestors, Jaratkāru made up his mind to get married. [Progeny was seen as imperative for the sustenance of the lineage and also to honour the dead ancestors.] But he wanted a wife who would listen to his words and her name was to be the same as his. Although he was poor, he expected that the bride’s family would come of their own accord and offer their daughter in marriage. Fortunately, the serpent-king Vāsuki had a sister who fulfilled the criteria. He gave his sister’s hand in marriage to Jaratkāru. However, his family life was short-lived. Frustrated and upset with her, he abandoned her even as she was pregnant. Later, Āstīka was born to her and grew up in his uncle Vāsuki’s house.


The reason for the death of so many snakes in the fire of the sarpa-yāga was due to the curse of Kadru, the mother of all serpents. What is the reason for this curse? To know the answer, we have to rewind to the beginning of creation. The creator Prajāpati had two daughters, Kadru and Vinatā. He got them both married off to Kaśyapa . The snakes were born to Kadru; Aruṇa and Garuḍa were born to Vinatā. Once Kadru and Vinatā had an argument regarding the colour of the divine horse Uccaiśravas – whether it was black or white. It was agreed that the loser would become a slave to the winner. Vinatā said that the horse was white in colour while Kadru said that its tail was black. Indeed, Uccaiśravas had a white tail and Vinatā should have justly won the argument. However, Kadru, fearing slavery to Vinatā, ordered her children to stick on to the horse’s tail and make it appear black in colour. But they refused to abet this crime. Furious, Kadru cursed them: “All of you will get reduced to ashes in the sarpa-yāga that Janamejaya will perform!” A few serpents, having gotten afraid of the curse, stuck to the tail of the horse, making it appear black. This made Vinatā and her son Garuḍa the slaves of Kadru. Garuḍa fought the devas and brought amṛta (elixir of immortality) to the nāgas, thus freeing himself and his mother from slavery. Indra, however, hoodwinked the serpents and took the amṛta away before they could partake of it. All that they could get in the end was slit tongues, having licked the blades of the darbha grass on which the pot of amṛta had been placed.


At the mention of amṛta, the story switches to the samudra-mathana episode (churning of the milk-ocean for amṛta). The narration starts with the churning of the ocean, the appearance of poison and several other items, and finally the emergence of amṛta [soma is also used synonymously with amṛta; adhyāya 30, verses 7, 8, 13, 18, and 19.] Viṣṇu, in the guise of Mohinī, distributes the amṛta only to the devas. This and several other stories with all their vivid details appear in this section.


We have already seen that Śṛṅgi, the son of Śamīka, cursed Parikṣit. However, Śamīka did not approve of his son’s act. “Parikṣit is, after all, a king. Moreover, śama (self-control) and kṣama (forbearance) are the ornaments for a brāhmaṇa . Thus I shall inform him of this. Let him plan for his safety!” Saying so, he asked his student Gauramukha to inform Parikṣit of the curse. According to the curse, Parikṣit was to die within seven days of Takṣaka ’s bite. Thus, Parikṣit retired to an enclosure with a single pillar supporting it and had tight security arrangements made. He had with him physicians and māntrikas (people highly accomplished in mantra-lore). He executed his kingly duties from this enclosure. Six days passed.

On the seventh day, a māntrika by name Kaśyapa , having heard this news was on his way to Hastināpura, claiming that he could cure Parikṣit of a snake-bite; he was driven by an ulterior motive of making money. Takṣaka, who happened to be on the same path, met Kaśyapa  and asked him who he was and what he was doing. After learning about Kaśyapa’s intention, Takṣaka  decided to test his skills in mantra-lore. So he bit a banyan tree that was nearby, which instantly turned to ashes. Kaśyapa , with the power of his mantras, revived the tree. If such a skilled māntrika were to be around, Takṣaka  feared that his mission would not succeed and therefore paid large sums of money to Kaśyapa and sent him away from there. Having received the money, Kaśyapa thought to himself that it was anyway time for Parikṣit to die and went back the way he came. Takṣaka  reached the enclosure and realized that the place was heavily guarded. He called a few of his snakes and ordered them to put on the guise of sages and visit Parikṣit with fruits and flowers. Since they appeared as sages, no one prevented their entry into the enclosure. The king received the sages cordially and accepted their gifts of fruits and flowers. He distributed them to his aides and also picked up a fruit to eat. Inside that fruit, Takṣaka  had hidden himself in the form of a worm. Parikṣit picked up the red worm with black eyes and told his ministers mockingly, “The sun is setting. I don’t think I have to fear poison anymore. If this worm bites me in the name of Takṣaka , let it do so! Let the words of the sage come true! We shall find a remedy for it!” Saying so, he picked up the worm and put it on his neck. The worm turned into Takṣaka , coiled itself around his body, and bit him. He succumbed to the poison-rage. The enclosure too was reduced to ashes along with his people.


The ministers organized his last rites and crowned the infant Janamejaya as the king. After he grew up, once Uttaṅka came to him and instigated him to conduct a sarpa-yāga (as narrated earlier). Janamejaya asked his ministers to narrate his father’s story. Listening to their detailed narration, Janamejaya was in tears. He said, “Takṣaka ’s intention was to kill my father. If his intention was merely to bring fulfillment to Śṛṅgi’s curse, he would have bit my father and gone away. Kaśyapa would have revived him. But he didn’t do so. He played on Kaśyapa’s mind, sent him off, and then came to destroy my father. Therefore, the performance of the sarpa-yāga is justified. It will not only make me happy but will also please Uttanka. Make the appropriate arrangements!”

The story goes that the architect of the yajña-mantapa (the enclosure in which yajña  is performed) noticed bad omens during its construction. He declared, “This yajña will never be completed. A brāhmaṇa  will be responsible for its abrupt end.” Therefore, Janamejaya made a strict order – “Don’t allow anyone into the yāga-śālā until the yajña is complete.” [Here, the words yāga and yajña have been used interchangeably.]


The arrangements were made accordingly and the yajña started. Several varieties of serpents of different colours and types started falling into the fire of the yāga. When the heat of the yajña started affecting Vāsuki and his family, he called his sister Jaratkāru and said, “Send your son Āstīka  and make him stop the sarpa-yāga. He was born only to rescue us from this predicament.” Āstīka  reassured Vāsuki and went to the yajña-śālā. The gate-keepers would not let him in. Then even at the doorstep, Āstīka  started praising the yajña, the person conducting it, and the ṛtviks officiating it. This gladdened Janamejaya and he said, “Although young, this person at the door seems to be intelligent. Let him in.” He welcomed him and asked, “Tell me what you wish for. I shall give it to you.”

Image courtesy:- Google image search

In the meanwhile, except Takṣaka most other snakes had fallen into the fire of the yajña. However, Janamejaya’s enmity was primarily with Takṣaka . He had thus commanded the ṛtviks that Takṣaka  must be forcibly brought and offered to the fire. Sensing imminent danger to his life, Takṣaka  took refuge in Indra. Having learnt this, the ṛtviks uttered the mantrasendrāya takṣakāya svāhā’ (“We offer Takṣaka  along with Indra!”) as they performed the ritual. Indra was thus forced to come along with Takṣaka . Indra, however, left Takṣaka  midway in the skies and returned to his abode. At the same time, Āstīka  said, “O respected king! Let the yajña stop at this point! This is all I wished for! I don’t ask for any gold or silver.” Janamejaya was bound by his word and had to follow the dharma of a yajña, thus having to fulfill Āstīka ’s wish. The sarpa-yāga was stopped before completion. Takṣaka  survived. Āstīka  was happy.


Śaunaka was enthralled listening to the story. He asked the Sūta-Paurāṇika, “You have finished narrating all the stories starting from the lineage of Bhṛgu. Please recount the strange and fascinating tales that Vyāsa and others narrated during the time of the sarpa-yāga.” The Sūta-Paurāṇika Ugraśrava said, “All brāhmaṇas except Vyāsa narrated stories from the Vedas but Vyāsa always narrated the story of Bhārata alone.” Śaunaka then asked, “If so, please tell us the Bhārata story that you heard from Vyāsa.” Ugraśrava said, “So be it! I shall narrate the elaborate story of the epic Mahābhārata as retold by Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana. I too am eager to recount that very tale.” Saying so, he started the Bhārata epic.

Thus, the fifty-third adhyāya and the Āstīka (upa-) parva comes to an end.

To be continued.
Thanks to Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh for his astute feedback.




Prof. A R Krishna Sastri was a journalist, scholar, polyglot, and a pioneer of the modern Kannada renaissance, who founded the literary journal Prabuddha Karnāṭaka. His Vacana-bhārata and Kathāmṛta are classics of Kannada literature while his Saṃskṛta-nāṭaka and Bankimacandra are of unrivalled scholarship.



Arjun is a writer, translator, engineer, and enjoys composing poems. He is well-versed in Sanskrit, Kannada, English, Greek, and German languages. His research interests lie in comparative aesthetics of classical Greek and Sanskrit literature. He has deep interest in the theatre arts and music. Arjun has (co-) translated the works of AR Krishna Shastri, DV Gundappa, Dr. SL Bhyrappa, Dr. SR Ramaswamy and Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh


Hari is an author, translator, editor, designer, and violinist with a deep interest in philosophy, education pedagogy, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited some forty books, mostly related to Indian culture.

Prekshaa Publications

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...