157. Piśācanāṃ piśācabhāṣayaivottaraṃ deyam
To make the piśācas understand, we should converse in their own language (piśācabhāṣā). They wouldn’t understand Kannada or Sanskrit! “For the wicked, punishment is the ultimate cure, there is no use in trying to pacify them” Other nyāyas like ‘yakṣānurūpo baliḥ’ or ‘śaṭhaṃ prati śāṭhyam’ also have similar import.
To grind the flour again to make flour, which is futile. To go on and on with the same thing. In such situations this nyāya is used. Tuṣakaṇḍana-nyāya also has a similar import.
159. Piṇḍamutsṛjya karaṃ leḍhi
Letting go of the morsel, he licked the hand! This nyāya is used when someone discards the substantial to desire something paltry. Drinking the rice gruel instead of milk! Being immersed in the picture of a person even when the same person is in front of us, flesh and blood! Such examples provide support to this nyāya.
Pīlu is a tree (identified as wild guava). The leaves are bitter but the fruits are sweet. Even though the products are from the same tree, they differ in taste. The logic that since both have the same origin, they should both be sweet or bitter doesn’t hold. It is foolish to argue so. This is specially used in Buddhist treatises. Also see gomayapāyasīya-nyāya.
161. Putralipsayā devaṃ bhajantyā bhartāpi naṣṭaḥ
A woman who had no children was trying to propitiate the deities. Her husband too died meanwhile! When someone is desiring something new and the very source of it gets destroyed, this nyāya is used to describe such a situation.
Puṣṭalaguḍa means a thick cane. When a pack of dogs see a new person they tend to flock together around him and bark. If the man uses his cane on one of them, the rest will run. When one attempt results in multiple results this nyāya is used to describe that situation. Same goes when using a single point one can destroy all the arguments of various opponents in one go. One more interpretation is to use the cane on the dog which is well-fed.
163. Pṛṣṭhatāḍane dantabhaṅgaḥ
Losing teeth when one is beaten on their rear! There should be a connection between the cause and the effect, always. The cause and effect cannot happen at different places. When such things happen the cause isn’t valid in the first place. During an argument, someone proposes something to this effect, this nyāya is used to ridicule them.
In aesthetics in the cause and effect are unrelated, the figure of speech is called as ‘asaṅgatyalaṅkāra’. An example is as follows
विषं जलधरैः पीतं मूर्छिताः पथिकाङ्गनाः।
“The clouds drank the poison but the women of the travellers fainted”
This is a description of the rainy season. Viṣa also means water. The clouds are the ones which inflame kāma. When their beloved is travelling in faraway lands the women are suffering from separation. Seeing the clouds their sorrow multiplied.
164. Prathamagrāse makṣikāpātaḥ
The very first bite is spoiled by the fly. When there is an impediment right at the beginning then this nyāya is used to describe such instances. The same goes with, “prathamacuṃbane dantabhaṅgaḥ”
Pradhānamalla is the strongest or the main wrestler. Nibarhaṇa is to defeat him. If one defeats the strongest opponent then it means he would in principle have defeated the weaker ones too. There might be a lot of opponents. Each might have various arguments. When someone establishes his conclusion, he need not address each and every point by every opponent. If he just addresses the main opponent and defeats him then the rest are also defeated.
The cause of creation as per Buddhists is the śūnya (void), as per logicians it is the paramāṇus (atoms), as per sāṅkhya it is prakṛti. Amongst these the sāṅkhyas are the strongest. The vedāntins criticize the arguments of the sāṅkhyas, so by extension they also criticize the Buddhists and the logicians. (See brahma-sūtra 1.4.28 and the corresponding exposition in śāṅkarabhāṣya)
In ancient times kings would be the patrons of many wrestlers. If some wrestler from another kingdom challenges their might, he would pick the strongest among them, if he was able to defeat him then the king would felicitate him assuming that he would be able to beat the others too. This might be the source of this nyāya.
166. Prayojanamanuddiśya na mando'pi pravartate
Even a fool won’t venture into something without thinking about the result. Will a wise man do so? Thus every word used in the śāstras has accountability and meaning, and anything redundant should be removed is the opinion here.
In this infinite creation, the āstikas believe that there is no animate or inanimate object without use, however insignificant. There is a proverb which says, ‘There is no herb which wouldn’t serve as a medicine to some ailment.’ But, ‘yojakastatra durlabhaḥ’ i.e. rare is the one who can use it correctly.
In the famous play Mudrārākṣasa, Cāṇakya says, ‘विना प्रयोजनं स्वप्नेऽपि न चेष्टते कौटिल्यः’ Without any use Cāṇakya doesn’t do anything even in his dream!
Plavaṅgama means a monkey. A monkey can jump around, climb trees and eat fruits. This nyāya is used to describe such capabilities which are neither the greatest nor the least. The speed is higher than an ant but lower than a bird.
Also see pipīlikāgati-nyāya and vihaṅgamagati-nyāya.
Sahakāra is a mango tree with sweet and fragrant fruits. During the spring season, it gives fruits, fragrance and shade. The tree has been planted for the fruits but without effort the shade and fragrance comes for free. When something is done with a particular target but as a side effect we also get some other nice things, in such situations, this nyāya is used. There is a maxim in āpastambadharmasūtra which summarizes this as “आम्रे फलार्थे निचिते छाया गन्ध इत्यनूत्पद्येते”. Something which is done for the sake of dharma will also result in artha and kāma is the intent here. This maxim might actually be the origin of this nyāya.
This is the nineteenth part of the multi-part translation of the Kannada book "Sandarbha Sukti" by Mahamahopadhyaya Vidwan Dr. N Ranganatha Sharma. Thanks to Dr. Sharada Chaitra for granting us permission to translate this wonderful work. Thanks to Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh for his inputs. The original in Kannada can be read here