The Tradition of Kshaatra in India: Samudragupta, the Torchbearer

The multi-volume History and Culture of the Indian People, a definitive work authored by numerous scholars, contains the most accurate and clear history of the Guptas. R.C. Majumdar, the General Editor of the volume titled The Classical Age, and K.M. Munshi, who has written a foreword to the volume have held that the glory of the Gupta Era was extraordinary. Indeed, Munshi has written that this extraordinary glory was possible because of Dharma.

It needs to be clarified that “Dharma” doesn’t mean religion or sect. It is the highly magnanimous philosophy underlying Sanatana Dharma. It is the universal system that sustains and nurtures everything, everybody. It is wedded to spirituality and is not a sectarian delusion. When we examine Munshi’s own words in this regard, its essence becomes clear.

Politically, this was the age of integration in India. After more than three hundred years of fragmentation and foreign domination, northern India was again united under the vigorous rule of a powerful monarch of versatile talents. A brilliant general, a farsighted statesman, a man of culture and a patron of arts and letters, he became the symbol and architect of a mighty creative urge among the people which, while drawing vitality from tradition and race-memory, took on a new shape and power.

Samudragupta was succeeded by his no less brilliant son, Chandra Gupta II known as Vikramaditya, acclaimed as the greatest of the Gupta Emperors. In his reign…the last vestige of foreign rule disappeared from the land and the direct sway of Pataliputra extended from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea.

Our history textbooks while narrating the expanse of the Gupta Empire, which included the entire region of North India up to the Narmada River, paint a picture portraying that all the other kings beyond this region were the enemies of the Guptas. But Munshi clearly says,

The country to the south of the Narmada was dominated by two friendly powers—the Vakatakas and the Pallavas—who shared the Guptas emperors’ enthusiasm for strengthening Dharma. The dominions of the descendants of Vakataka Vindhyasakti extended from Bundelkhand to Hyderabad. A daughter of Chandragupta II was married to one of them, and she ruled as regent for thirteen years; and till the dynasty disappeared, the Vakatakas continued in subordinate alliance with the Guptas. The Pallavas who held unquestioned sway over the south, maintained friendly relations with the Guptas, even when they were not subject to their hegemony.  

Chandragupta Vikramaditya’s daughter Prabhavatigupta was given in marriage to the home of the Vakatakas. The chief value upheld during that period was the reinvigoration of Dharma. We can recall the words of Dr. S L Bhyrappa in this context: “Every country has its own language. The language of India was Dharma.” It is only when we speak in that language that our people will understand things quickly and easily. Dharma stands on the edifice of Yajna-Dana-Tapas (Sharing-Charity-Penance), which brings peace and virtue to the world.

The foundations that the Guptas and their friends laid back then survives almost intact even to this day. If the life-pulse of our country has survived today, it is simply a continuation of what was instituted during the Gupta period. It was the same thing that the Badami Chalukyas, Kalyana Chalukyas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, the Yadavas of Devagiri, Hoysalas, Rashtrakutas, and Pala-Senas upheld and fostered. As also did the Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, and Cheras in Tamil Nadu. Equally, the Kakatiyas and Reddy kings of the Andhra country promoted this. What’s more, the Vijayanagara Empire and Shivaji followed the same path. But in the period that ensued, we lost this spirit and inspiration inherent in Sanatana Dharma as a consequence of which, all of India plummeted down.

One can regard Samudragupta’s example in order to understand the meaning of Kshatra. Samudragupta was well-versed in all manner of weaponry. He had undergone rigorous practice in archery and swordsmanship. Additionally, a study of his coins reveals that he was also an expert in wielding the axe. These coins variously, depict pictures of Samudragupta taming a tiger, performing the Ashwamedha Yajna, waiting for the Deity’s Prasada with folded hands, and playing the Vina. Harishena writes in the Prayagashasana (Prayaga Inscription):

Samudragupta was a good poet and Vina exponent. He had taken a vow that he would not play the Vina till such time that his Empire was not happy and prosperous. He ruled for more than forty years. The first twenty years were spent in instituting proper systems in place. He travelled extensively in the Dakshinapatha (roughly: South India). He made everyone his feudatory. He lived a truly peaceful and contented life in the last twenty years of his rule and spread this peace among his people.     

Samudragupta displayed the same expertise in playing the Vina that he showed on the battlefield as a seasoned, expert warrior. He also showed this prowess in composing poetry. He was sagacious in literature and music. Samudragupta had performed the Ashwamedha Yajna. Owing to this fact, one cannot brand him as an orthodox and a rigid ritualist. This is because one of the key figures in his court was the renowned Buddhist scholar, Vasubandhu, who was also his minister and guide. We learn of the exact greatness of Buddhism From Vasubandhu’s works. It must be clarified that the Buddhism of Vasubandhu is not the Buddhism of today.

The Guptas took immense pride in declaring that they were the descendants of the Licchavi ancestry. In the Gupta coins, there is a mention that Chandragupta Vikramaditya was the “grandson of the Licchavis” (or daughter’s son). The Guptas spoke glowingly about the glory of their maternal clan.

When the Nagas became boundlessly powerful and posed a threat to the integrity of Sanatana Dharma, Samudragupta softened them and through gentle persuasion, influenced them to see the value in accepting Sanatana Dharma. The Nagara Brahmanas emerged as a consequence of this. In the Gupta Empire, we discern the harmony that is mentioned in the Manu and other Smritis. The other specialty of Samudragupta is the fact that he restored the empires of the kings that he had defeated, and didn’t usurp any of them. It appears that the details that Kalidasa provides in the fourth canto of the Raghuvamsha regarding Raghu’s campaign of military conquest applies to Samudragupta:

आपादपद्मप्रणता: कलमा इव ते रघुम् ।
फलै: सम्वर्धयामासुरुत्खातप्रतिरोपिता: ॥ (IV-37)

In his campaign of military conquest, Raghu defeated the kings of various countries and then restored them to their previous positions. This (action) yielded plentiful fruit like the saplings of rice that are plucked out and then replanted in the same place.

Even today, those people who are well-aware of the nuances of cultivating paddy will appreciate the beauty of this verse. For the purposes of planting the seeds, a garden-bed is filled with sprouts. Then these sprouts are plucked out and planted in neat rows with a distance of a span between each sapling. This process ensures that the crop grows well. Every sapling will be provided with an ample supply of manure and water resulting in the healthy growth of the ear. In the same manner, those (conquered and restored) kingdoms witnessed prosperity.

We can also note the same strain in yet another verse.

गृहीतप्रतिमुक्तस्य स धर्मविजयी नृप: ।

श्रियम् महेन्द्रनाथस्य जहार न तु मेदिनीम् ॥  (IV-43)

Because Raghu was a Dharmavijayi King he received only a symbolic tribute from Mahendra, the King of Kalinga and did not gobble up his kingdom.

Arthashastra and Dharmashastra texts classify victorious kings into three types: Dharmavijayi, Lobhavijayi, and Asuravijayi.

Of these, the Dharmavijayi King is the greatest. He extracts only a symbolic tribute from the vanquished. The Lobhavijayi King is second-best. He gobbles up both the territory and the treasury of the vanquished. The Asuravijayi King is the most despicable. He not only slaughters everybody in the camp of the defeated king, he also seizes territory and treasury.

The unfortunate fact is that all the Islamic raids and invasions against India are far viler in nature than the aforementioned Asuravijayi. These raids devastated countless families of the defeated kings and reveled in demonic joy by subjecting their women and children to unspeakable atrocities. What’s more, it inflicted the same horror upon the subjects of the conquered region as well. It authored a dark tale of forcible religious conversions and large scale temple destructions in alphabets dipped in blood.

The history of Christianity isn’t too different from this. Communist savagery too, isn’t any lesser in intensity or extent; in some aspects, it’s far more horrific and base.

The Sunrise of Cultural Kinship


It was the Guptas who infused cultural kinship through art. The Ajanta paintings reached their artistic pinnacle during the Gupta reign. Their era also marked a transition from Ashwaghosha’s poetry characterized by extreme and pathetic renunciation to that of Kalidasa’s life-affirming poetry.

Only one example is sufficient to show this stark difference between Buddhism and Sanatana Dharma.

The eleventh canto of Ashwaghosha’s Buddhacharita relates to “Maaraapajaya,” where Kama is defeated by the power of Buddha’s penance. In the third canto of Kalidasa’s Kumarasambhava, Shiva burns down Kama. When we compare the two, we derive great clarity: Kalidasa’s Shiva burns Kama and then brings him back to life; as a consequence, the entire world also survives. Ashwaghosha’s Buddha banishes Kama forever. No matter how much we reject the natural impulses and hard realities of life, they will invariably resurface from some or the other depth of our fundamental impulses.

Painting of Ajanta Caves. Pic Courtesy: Sandeep Balakrishna

In reality, Buddha had understood this truth. Primary Buddhist texts aver that Buddha asked Mara the following: “I will rebuild your empire after a few years. Till then, give me the time and opportunity to disseminate philosophy and to turn the wheel of Dharma.” Buddha did not preach negation of life. But this was interpreted by the confused Buddhists as meaning something entirely different. The neo-Buddhists did not participate in the process of Buddha’s spiritual evolution. Buddha drank deep from numerous waters. Buddha’s admonition of, “don’t ask me this question at present” was interpreted to mean, “that very thing which was asked didn’t exist at all.” This was the root of all the dangers that followed.

Kalidasa made creative and positive corrections to Ashwaghosha. Samudragupta did the same to Ashoka. One must indeed perceive these as creative modifications and corrections. When we mutually compare the triads of Ashoka-Kanishka-Ashwaghosha and Samudragupta-Chandragupta II-Kalidasa, we will clearly understand where each stands in relation to the other. Ashwaghosha never became a model for any great Indian poet who came after him. Likewise, Ashoka never became a model for any great Indian monarch who followed him. However, Kalidasa became both the Guru and the Kavikulaguru of every Indian poet. Samudragupta and Chandragupta Vikramaditya became the inspiration for every Indian Samrat, or Emperor. Their Varaha flag was adopted by and became the proud Flag of Victory of the Badami Chalukyas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Vengi Chalukyas, and above all, the Vijayanagara Empire. It became the compass of all manner of progress and prosperity.

Dwaita is that which takes into account everyday realities. Given this, what is the value of an Advaita which doesn’t respect Dwaita? Likewise, a Dwaita which does not love Advaita will not have a ground to stand on. One must always bear this integrated approach in mind. This integration is the integration between the Trivarga (Dharma, Artha, and Kama) and Apavarga (Moksha). Because this integration is part and parcel of Sanatana Dharma, the proverbial common folk are not tormented too much by confusions. Equally, the highly learned people do not face such confusions. These confusions haunt only those who have neither scaled the philosophical heights nor have condescended to descend to the level of the common folk. One needs to examine the splendor of India’s highly-refined tradition of Kshatra in this backdrop.

In the early days of the West’s acquaintance with India, they branded Samudragupta as India’s Napoleon. Napoleon Bonaparte lived in the eighteenth century CE. Samudragupta was a great warrior-emperor who predated him by least thousand two hundred years. When a similar comparison is drawn between Kalidasa as India’s Shakespeare, the intent is merely to show that Kalidasa was as popular and as renowned in India. But then such comparisons also reflect a colonialist’s arrogance. Which is okay because normally, we attempt to recognize strangers in a language and idiom that is our own. Be that as it may, our critical faculties must always be alert to put things in their proper place without getting carried away by comparisons originating in feelings of superiority or inferiority.

Translated by Hari Ravikumar and Sandeep Balakrishna

To be continued




Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.



Sandeep Balakrishna is a writer, author, translator, and socio-political-cultural analyst. He is the author of "Tipu Sultan: The Tyrant of Mysore" and "The Madurai Sultanate: A Concise History." He translated Dr. S L Bhyrappa's magnum opus "Avarana" into English.


Hari is an author, translator, editor, designer, and violinist with a deep interest in philosophy, education pedagogy, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited some forty books, mostly related to Indian culture.

Prekshaa Publications

Among the many contributions of ancient Indians to world thought, perhaps the most insightful is the realisation that ānanda (Bliss) is the ultimate goal of human existence. Since time immemorial, India has been a land steeped in contemplation about the nature of humans and the universe. The great ṛṣis (seers) and ṛṣikās (seeresses) embarked on critical analysis of subjective experience and...

One of the two great epics of India and arguably the most popular epic in the world, the Ramayana has enchanted generations of people not just in Greater India but the world over. In less than three hundred pages The Essential Ramayana captures all the poetic subtleties and noble values of the original and offers the great epic in an eminently readable form that will appeal to the learned and...

The Bhagavad-gītā isn’t merely a treatise on ultimate liberation. It is also a treatise on good living. Even the laity, which does not have its eye on mokṣa, can immensely benefit from the Gītā. It has the power to grant an attitude of reverence in worldly life, infuse enthusiasm in the execution of duty, impart fortitude in times of adversity, and offer solace to the heart when riddled by...

Indian Perspective of Truth and Beauty in Homer’s Epics is a unique work on the comparative study of the Greek Epics Iliad and Odyssey with the Indian Epics – Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Homer, who laid the foundations for the classical tradition of the West, occupies a stature similar to that occupied by the seer-poets Vālmīki and Vyāsa, who are synonymous with the Indian culture. The author...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the sixth volume of reminiscences character sketches of prominent public figures, liberals, and social workers. These remarkable personages hailing from different corners of South India are from a period that spans from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. Written in Kannada in the 1970s, these memoirs go...

An Introduction to Hinduism based on Primary Sources

Authors: Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh, Hari Ravikumar

What is the philosophical basis for Sanātana-dharma, the ancient Indian way of life? What makes it the most inclusive and natural of all religio-philosophical systems in the world?

The Essential Sanātana-dharma serves as a handbook for anyone who wishes to grasp the...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fifth volume, episodes from the lives of traditional savants responsible for upholding the Vedic culture. These memorable characters lived a life of opulence amidst poverty— theirs  was the wealth of the soul, far beyond money and gold. These vidvāns hailed from different corners of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom and lived in...

Padma Bhushan Dr. Padma Subrahmanyam represents the quintessence of Sage Bharata’s art and Bhārata, the country that gave birth to the peerless seer of the Nāṭya-veda. Padma’s erudition in various streams of Indic knowledge, mastery over many classical arts, deep understanding of the nuances of Indian culture, creative genius, and sublime vision bolstered by the vedāntic and nationalistic...

Bhārata has been a land of plenty in many ways. We have had a timeless tradition of the twofold principle of Brāhma (spirit of wisdom) and Kṣāttra (spirit of valour) nourishing and protecting this sacred land. The Hindu civilisation, rooted in Sanātana-dharma, has constantly been enriched by brāhma and safeguarded by kṣāttra.
The renowned Sanskrit poet and scholar, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R...

ಛಂದೋವಿವೇಕವು ವರ್ಣವೃತ್ತ, ಮಾತ್ರಾಜಾತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ಷಣಜಾತಿ ಎಂದು ವಿಭಕ್ತವಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಛಂದಸ್ಸುಗಳನ್ನೂ ವಿವೇಚಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ಸಂಕಲನ. ಲೇಖಕರ ದೀರ್ಘಕಾಲಿಕ ಆಲೋಚನೆಯ ಸಾರವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡ ಈ ಹೊತ್ತಗೆ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಛಂದಸ್ಸಿನ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಲಕ್ಷಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ತೌಲನಿಕ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಗಳ ತೆಕ್ಕೆಗೆ ಬರುವ ಬರೆಹಗಳೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿವೆ. ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕಾರನಿಗಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಹಸ್ತನಾದ ಕವಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸ್ಫುರಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಹೊಳಹುಗಳು ಕೃತಿಯ ಮೌಲಿಕತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿವೆ. ಈ...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the fourth volume, some character sketches of the Dewans of Mysore preceded by an account of the political framework of the State before Independence and followed by a review of the political conditions of the State after 1940. These remarkable leaders of Mysore lived in a period that spans from the mid-nineteenth century to the...

Bharatiya Kavya-mimamseya Hinnele is a monograph on Indian Aesthetics by Mahamahopadhyaya N. Ranganatha Sharma. The book discusses the history and significance of concepts pivotal to Indian literary theory. It is equally useful to the learned and the laity.

Sahitya-samhite is a collection of literary essays in Kannada. The book discusses aestheticians such as Ananda-vardhana and Rajashekhara; Sanskrit scholars such as Mena Ramakrishna Bhat, Sridhar Bhaskar Varnekar and K S Arjunwadkar; and Kannada litterateurs such as DVG, S L Bhyrappa and S R Ramaswamy. It has a foreword by Shatavadhani Dr. R Ganesh.

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...


इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।


इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।


अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...


ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...


“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...