Fundamental Principles of a State’s Well-being - Part 5

Administrative Intelligence of the Dewans

Before 1940, all those who administered the State in the position of the Dewan were loyal and competent in their own ways. As mentioned earlier, there are two levels of State governance – 1. Development (Progress) and 2. Day-to-day administration. Likewise, there are two different standards of people who run the State’s administration – 1. Statesmen and 2. Administrators.

When observed through this lens, of the Mysore Dewans, four were Statesmen: Rungacharlu, Seshadri Iyer, Visvesvaraya, and Mirza. In addition to these four, the other six viz. Thumboo Chetty, Krishnamurti, Madhava Rao, Ananda Rao, Banerjee, and Kantharaj Urs achieved eminence as Administrators.
The four statesmen were of four different frames of mind –

  1. Rungacharlu: Enlightened the citizens about administration, achieved economic progress, and provided good governance.
  2. Seshadri Iyer: Achieved economic progress and ensured good administration.
  3. Visvesvaraya: Achieved economic progress, imparted awareness to citizens, and provided good governance.
  4. Mirza Ismail: Achieved economic progress, provided good governance, and alleviated the grievances of citizens.

Highest Standard of General Administration

With respect to the day-to-day activities of general administration, all the ten Dewans mentioned above were efficient and law-abiding. None of them ever tolerated any immoral or illicit activity such as bribery or corruption. They investigated such matters with-out mercy and appropriately penalized the guilty. Since they were people with faith in the powers of the almighty, they were afraid to commit an act of pāpa. All of them were well versed with law and order and had learnt from vast experience. Although six of the ten Dewans must be classified as ‘administrators’ rather than being listed among the drivers of development, they were not against development; even they were supporters of progress. Maintaining the high standard of administration itself was their contribution towards development.
Just like how food and sleep are integral parts of our routine, general activities of day-to-day administration are integral parts of the government’s routine. For anything better and beyond to materialize, it is essential that the fundamental aspects of administration are operating smoothly. What does ‘general activities of administration running smoothly’ mean?
Irrespective of whether the matter concerns the complaints and appeals submitted by the citizens to the government or the actions that the government needs to undertake on its own accord, they have to be addressed keeping the following aspects in mind –

  1. Clear time limit,
  2. Open and transparent enquiry; open and transparent conduct,
  3. Implementation of law,
  4. Intent to help as much as the rules of law permit, and
  5. Unfailing obedience to truth.

These are verily the attributes of good administration. Everything that a citizen should get from the government according to law should be available to him at the right time without any lapses. This is the administrator’s responsibility. The government has to make facilities available to the citizens without hurting any ethical principles. In this aspect, Mysore had developed a standard of discipline because of the British commissioners. Our Dewans maintained that standard without letting it drop; they even took it higher. Although some people couldn’t take it further above, none of them let the standards fall.

Stress of a Renewed Excitement

Across a sixty-year span of history, expecting all the ministers to be achievers of superlative progress is simply impossible. That will not be useful either. If visionary statesmen who are capable of initiating remarkable progress, like Gladstone, Bismarck, Visvesvaraya, and Gandhi, keep germinating day after day, don’t we need a continuous flow of citizens who match up to them? Progress means a new purpose and a fresh sense of excitement. Both the renewed purpose and novel excitement exert unprecedented pressure on the people; they constantly expect new effort. To get accustomed to that kind of pressure and to get ready to engage in such toil, people require time. The regular administrators make this time available for people.

Mutual Benefit

Thus, in the history of Mysore, the great visionaries and administrators worked in tandem and were complementary to each other.
The fact that the government and the citizens should operate in harmony with each other is a noteworthy element. The government should be well aware of the people’s character and nature; it has to consider the preparedness of the citizens before planning its mode of operation. The citizens, on the other hand, should be understanding of the intent behind the attempts towards development and co-operate [with the government]. There should be a sense of mutual cooperation and benefit to both the parties. Only then will a government function effectively. And only then will there be real development. This is the principle that can be derived from the sixty-year experience of the Mysore State.

Competitive Politics

In the last twenty years in India, this cooperation between the citizens and the government has never been visible. The system of governance we have accepted now was built on the basis of competition between two or three factions of the citizens. Presence of two or three parties among the citizens all the time; never-ending competition among them on a daily basis; one group keeps finding faults with the other and the other keeps drawing attention to its opposition’s debauchery; a fresh rumour with every sunrise; internal conspiracies on a day-to-day basis; constant blaming of each other and mutual accusations; bitter fights on a daily basis – this is how bipartisan politics works.
In the past, the parties in England were dependent on principles that were applicable to a society consisting of all kinds of people. Now, a third party has germinated in addition to the two older parties; this is the party of labourers or of those who endorse socialism. Both the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party of the past included people from all strata of the society: the wealthy, the commoners, industrialists, labourers, daily wage earners – people from all these different sections of society were members of both the political parties that were existent previously. This newly-formed Labour (Socialist) Party is made up solely of labourers; it was born to oppose the business class. Hostility itself was its foundation. In this manner, the politics in England has been deteriorating. And we have emulated that.

This is the fifth part of the ten-part English translation of the epilogue of D V Gundappa’s Jnapakachitrashaale – Vol. 4 – Mysurina Dewanaru. Edited by Hari Ravikumar and Raghavendra G S.

Author(s)

About:

Devanahalli Venkataramanayya Gundappa (1887-1975) was a great visionary and polymath. He was a journalist, poet, art connoisseur, philosopher, political analyst, institution builder, social commentator, social worker, and activist.

Translator(s)

About:

Karthik Muralidharan is an entrepreneur, educator, and a motivational speaker. An MBA in Human Resource Management, Karthik currently runs businesses in Leadership Education, Training, and Wealth Management. He is deeply interested in prosody, philosophy, and literature.

About:

Hari is a writer, translator, editor, violinist, and designer with a deep interest in Vedanta, education pedagogy design, literature, and films. He has (co-)written/translated and (co-)edited 25+ books, mostly related to Indian culture and philosophy. He serves on the advisory board of a few educational institutions.

Prekshaa Publications

The Mahābhārata is the greatest epic in the world both in magnitude and profundity. A veritable cultural compendium of Bhārata-varṣa, it is a product of the creative genius of Maharṣi Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa. The epic captures the experiential wisdom of our civilization and all subsequent literary, artistic, and philosophical creations are indebted to it. To read the Mahābhārata is to...

Shiva Rama Krishna

சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective...

Yaugandharam

इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...

Vanitakavitotsavah

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Vaiphalyaphalam

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Nipunapraghunakam

इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।

Bharavatarastavah

अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...

Bharatilochana

ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...

Vagarthavismayasvadah

“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...