Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi – Manuscripts, Editorial Apparatus

This article is part 1 of 4 in the series Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi

[We take great pleasure in commencing a series on Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi, a Sanskrit treatise on Poetics authored by Sāyaṇācārya. The text is critically edited for the first time by Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh and Shashi Kiran B N, and will be published by the Oriental Research Institute, Mysuru. This series constitutes a major portion of the editors’ introduction to Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi. We thank Dr. D P Madhusudan Acharya, the Director of Oriental Research Institute, for permitting us to publish the introduction. —Ed.]

Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi is a hitherto unpublished treatise on Poetics by Sāyaṇācārya, the celebrated author of commentaries on the Vedas. It is composed in the traditional format comprising expository verses (kārikā), explanation in prose (vṛtti) and illustrative verses (udāharaṇa). It provides remarkable insights into the life and personality of the author through illustrative verses composed by Bhoganātha, Sāyaṇācārya’s younger brother. It is also significant to the cultural history of the Vijayanagara period. 

The work serves as a compendium of the major concepts of Indian Poetics, adhering to the vision of Dhvanyāloka and following standard works such as Kāvya-prakāśa and Daśa-rūpaka. A close study of this text helps reveal the vibrant intellectual milieu of the period, marked by a profuse exchange of ideas.

The manuscript of Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi was discovered by R Narasimhachar in 1908. From the report published by the Mysore Archaeological Department, we gather that the manuscript was only a fragment.[1] Although the text has been known to the scholarly fraternity for more than a century, it has not been edited and published till date. Scholars such as R Narasimhachar, D V Gundappa, Yoganarasimha, M P L Sastri, S K De, P V Kane and P Sriramamurti have discussed various aspects of this treatise.[2] A paper by D C Sarasvati is particularly worth noting, for it presents a detailed analysis of the contents.[3] Apart from these scholars, historians working on the Vijayanagara Empire have mentioned the work in passing. The present edition draws from all these studies and attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the treatise along with the critically constituted text.

1. Manuscripts, Editorial Apparatus

The New Catalogus Catalogorum notes four manuscripts of Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi deposited in the Oriental Research Institute, Mysuru.[4] Of these, two are written on palm leaves and the other two on paper. One of the paper manuscripts (A. 615) is now unserviceable. Dr. V Raghavan’s personal collection of manuscripts, preserved at the Adyar Library and Research Institute, Chennai, includes two paper manuscripts.[5] Further, a paper manuscript of a different work bearing the same title is preserved at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune (No. 409 / 1892–95). It is authored by Gaṇapati, who was perhaps posterior to Sāyaṇācārya.

The following table provides the details of all the available manuscript material:

Name Preserved at Type, Script Dimensions (in cm) Folios ~ Lines per Folio, Letters per Line Condition
P. 826 ORI, Mysuru Palm leaf, Grantha 45×3 1–102 7, 58 Damaged, Worm-eaten
P. 2223/2 ORI, Mysuru Palm leaf, Kannada 46.5×5 2–34 12, 80 Fairly good
B. 718 ORI, Mysuru Paper, Kannada (Transcript of the above) 16×19.5 1–173 11, 24 Good
ALB 34 VR 26 Adyar Library, Chennai Paper, Telugu 24×14 2–40 21, 47 Good
ALB 139 VR 47 Adyar Library, Chennai Paper, Devanāgarī 14.2×22 1–280 20, 17 Good
 

When we began working on this endeavour, we were in possession of only the material preserved at ORI, Mysuru. We knew that scholars who have worked on Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi in the past, such as R Narasimhachar and D V Gundappa, had consulted the Kannada manuscript and its transcript.[6] We also knew that D C Sarasvati had consulted the Devanāgarī manuscript and had based her analysis on its contents.[7] Unfortunately, this was not available to us. The Telugu manuscript also remained elusive. The Kannada manuscript and its transcript in our possession were in fairly good condition. However, the Grantha manuscript, which is perhaps the oldest and has preserved better readings, was severely damaged and worm-eaten. Resigning ourselves to using the available material, we began to work in all earnest and prepared the first draft of the text. 

At this stage we happened to learn about Dr. V Raghavan’s personal collection of manuscripts—which included Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi—through our young friend, Srinidhi Ramachandra. We immediately got in touch with the authorities at the Adyar Library and procured the material available with them. To our amazement, these were the same paper manuscripts—Telugu and Devanāgarī—that we were looking for! Apparently, the palm leaf manuscripts on which these paper ones are based were once preserved at ORI, Mysuru but went missing later.

We finally possessed all the material required to prepare a critical edition of Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi.

We noticed that the Devanāgarī paper manuscript included readings from all the other manuscripts, mainly the Grantha. We also learnt that the resident scholars of ORI, Mysuru—Vidvān N S Venkatanathacharya and Vidvān K S Varadacharya—had collated these readings at the behest of Dr. V Raghavan.[8] Their scholarly effort proved a blessing for us, because we now had access to several new portions of the text. Going by these readings we surmise that the resident scholars must have collated portions from the Grantha manuscript when it was in a better condition than now.

We cannot say anything definitively about the genealogy of the manuscripts. Examining the readings preserved in each, we infer that: (1) Grantha is the oldest – most of its readings are authentic and large portions of it are not found in any other manuscript (2) Telugu and Devanāgarī transcripts are perhaps based on the same source (3) Kannada is an independent source by itself.

Because the oldest source (Grantha) is severely damaged, we have primarily relied on the Kannada manuscript (referred to as ‘K’ henceforth) and have used the readings from other sources as appropriate. We have noted important textual variants in the footnotes.

‘K’ seems to have changed hands at the twenty-fifth folio, for the writing has modified and remained the same till the end. The text ends abruptly at the thirty-fourth folio, and a different text titled Śṛṅgāra-tilaka begins from the next. The other manuscripts close at around the same juncture. Consequently, only a portion of the third chapter of Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi is available. Further, the opening portion of the text is preserved only in the Grantha variant – as a collated section in the Devanāgarī transcript.

A little-known commentary on Abhijñāna-śākuntala has quoted several verses and prose passages from Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi. We have used these readings to reconstruct some problematic portions of the text. The author of this commentary is Śrīnivāsācārya, a scholar who perhaps lived in the nineteenth century CE. A commentary on Veṅkaṭādhvarī’s Lakṣmī-sahasra authored by Śrīkṛṣṇa-brahmatantra-yatīndra, the thirty-first adhipati of Parakāla-maṭha, Mysuru, also quotes some verses from this treatise. Furthermore, a work on Poetics titled Sāhitya-kallolinī authored by Bhāskarācārya quotes a few verses that appear to be from this text.[9] These verses relate to the fame acquired through poetry, and appear in Śrīnivāsācārya’s commentary on Abhijñāna-śākuntala as well. Interestingly, the name of the scribe who copied Sāhitya-kallolinī was also Śrīnivāsācārya! A collection of verses on various aspects of Bharata-śāstra titled Rasika-jana-manollāsinī-sāra-saṅgraha-bharata-śāstra, compiled by Veṅkaṭa-sundarāsāni and printed in the Kannada script, also includes these verses. None of these texts expressly mentions the source. Yet we believe this set of verses is indeed quoted from Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi – because we find several other verses before and after this set that are seen in the manuscripts of Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi. There are, however, some verses that are not found in any manuscript, and we have noted these in a footnote.

Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi itself has heavily borrowed from two sources: (1) Sāhitya-cūḍāmaṇi, Bhaṭṭa-gopāla’s commentary on Kāvya-prakāśa and (2) Daśa-rūpaka. Other works on which it relies include Kāvyālaṅkāra-sāra-saṅgraha, Kāvyālaṅkāra-sūtra-vṛtti, Dhvanyāloka, Alaṅkāra-sarvasva and Ekāvalī. These have helped us in arriving at correct readings when all the manuscripts seemed inadequate or faulty. At several places we have emended the kārikās based on these works by sticking to the metrical pattern of the original. 

Although the writing in ‘K’ is fairly legible, it has a few ticklish issues. The scribe confounds the letters ‘ta’ and ‘na’, ‘na’ and ‘ṇa’, ‘ḍa’ and ‘ḍha’, ‘ra’ and ‘la’, ‘ḍa’ and ‘ḻa’ at many places. He uses ‘yya’ in the place of ‘ya’ when such a construction is unwarranted. Further, he does not include anusvāra and visarga at several places. Scribal errors are abundant, of which we mention only one: while describing the idiosyncrasies of various nāyikās, the text reads ‘ramaṇaṃ prati ramaṇīnāṃ’. The scribe has interchanged the letters ra and ma in the first word, and has thus turned a lover (ramaṇa) into death (maraṇa)! We have worked hard to iron out such errors. The text uses ‘ḻa’ in the place of ‘la’ possibly because of its Southern origin. We have used ‘la’ throughout. It calls the kārikās as sutras at times. We have not corrected such usages.

Furthermore, we have followed sandhi rules where they have been flouted in the text, and have used the avagraha sign (not seen in the manuscript) to indicate the pūrvarūpa-sandhi. The expository and illustrative verses are metrically flawed at a few places. We have attempted to present the correct metrical form. Apart from metrical errors there are some instances of grammatical slipups and infelicitous constructions.[10] In such cases we have indicated the correct usage in the footnotes. Further, we have noted in the footnotes those illustrative verses that appear multiple times in the text.

We have shown all our emendations within square brackets ‘[ ]’. We have used flower brackets ‘{ }’ to indicate: (1) textual variations in manuscripts, (2) portions of the text reconstructed with the help of other treatises. Despite our best efforts we could not reconstruct some portions of the text. The reason for this is twofold: the palm leaf manuscripts as they are available now are damaged at many places, and no manuscript has preserved the text in its entirety. While we could fill the lacunae in several verses, we could not do the same with the vṛtti passages. Verses couched in metre have a definite rhythm and length, and so it is easy to emend them – we can follow the metrical scansion and supply the missing letters. The vṛtti, on the other hand, is written in prose, which has no definite structure. This makes it difficult to know the exact extent of the lacuna. We have shown a blank line ‘___’ to indicate those portions of the text we could not reconstruct. At some instances we could not decipher the meaning of the text; we have used a question mark ‘(?)’ to indicate such places.

Additionally, we have added sub-headings, split the text into intelligible paragraphs and numbered the kārikās sequentially. While most of the kārikās comprise four feet, some have an additional two.[11] Yet others are in the form of half-verses with only two feet. We have added a superscript to the verse number to indicate extra feet, and have assigned independent numbers to half-verses. Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi quotes freely from several sources. We have indicated these sources in the footnotes to the best of our knowledge. At the end of the work we have included eight appendices that we believe will prove useful to students and scholars alike: index of kārikās, index of illustrative verses, index of illustrative verses grouped under various headings, index of poetic metres used in the illustrative verses, index of verses quoted in Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi, list of works that cite Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi, bibliography and illustrations of citra-bandhas.  



[1] Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department, 1908. p. 27

[2] Mādhavācārya and his Younger Brothers. Narasimhachar, R. The Indian Antiquary: A Journal of Oriental Research, Vol. XLV, 1916. pp. 1–6 (January) and pp. 17–24 (February);

Vidyāraṇyara Samakālīnaru (Kannada). Gundappa, D V. 1933. pp. 87–127;

A Critical Review of the Subhāṣita-sudhānidhi. Yoganarasimha. Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference, Baroda, 1935. pp. 121–40;

Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi. Sastri, M P L. Indian Culture, Vol. VI, 1939. pp. 439–47;

Bhoganātha – A Poet of the 14th Century. Sastri, M P L. Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVII, 1941. pp. 393–97;

History of Sanskrit Poetics. De, S K. 1960. pp. 210, 225–26, 312;

History of Sanskrit Poetics. Kane, P V. 1971. p. 404;

Contribution of Andhra to Sanskrit Literature. Sriramamurti. 1972. pp. 100–02       

[3] Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi Attributed to Sāyaṇa: A Hitherto Unpublished Treatise in Sanskrit Poetics. Sarasvati, D C. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 48/49 (Golden Jubilee Volume). pp. 253–82 

[4] New Catalogus Catalogorum (Vol. 1), p. 406.

The Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts records the beginning, end and colophon of one of these, a paper manuscript: Sl. No. 28408; Ms. No. B. 718. Ref: Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts (Vol. VIII), p. 421.

[5] These are not recorded in the Descriptive Catalogue published by the Adyar Library.

[6] Ref: Vidyāraṇyara Samakālīnaru (Kannada), p. 122

[7] Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi Attributed to Sāyaṇa, p. 254

[8] D C Sarasvati has recorded this fact in her paper: “At the request of my professor Dr. V. Raghavan … [the manuscripts] were collated by the paṇḍits of the library and sent.” (Alaṅkāra-sudhānidhi Attributed to Sāyaṇa, p. 254)

[9] Ref: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, pp. 8706–08

[10] Examples include: dhāmena (correct form, dhāmnā), vivadantaṃ (correct form, vivadamānaṃ), yuktimadeva samarthitamarthaṃ (correct form, yuktimantameva samarthitamarthaṃ), anavalokataḥ (correct form, anavalokamānasya)

[11] Anuṣṭup-śloka of this sort comprising six feet is named gāthā (Vṛtta-ratnākara, 5.12; Jayadaman, p. 91)

References

 

  1. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras (Vol. 22; Ed. Kuppuswami Sastri, S). Madras: Superintendent, Government Press, 1918
  2. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore, 1908
  3. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore, 1914–15
  4. Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department. Mysore: University of Mysore, 1933
  5. Beginnings of Vijayanagara History. Heras, Henry. Bombay: Indian Historical Research Institute, 1929
  6. Contribution of Andhra to Sanskrit Literature. Sriramamurti, P. Waltair: Andhra University, 1972
  7. Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts (Vol. VIII; Ed. Malledevaru, H P). Mysore: Oriental Research Institute, 1982
  8. Early Vijayanagara: Studies in its History and Culture (Proceedings of S. Srikantaya Centenary Seminar; Ed. Dikshit, G S). Bangalore: BMS Memorial Foundation, 1988
  9. Epigraphia Carnatica (Vol. 6; Ed. Rice, Lewis B). Mysore Archaeological Series, 1901
  10. Epigraphia Indica (Vol. 3; Ed. Hultzsch, E). Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1979 (Reprint)
  11. History of Sanskrit Poetics (2 volumes). De, Sushil Kumar.  Calcutta: Firma K L Mukhopadhyay, 1960
  12. History of Sanskrit Poetics. Kane, P V. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1971
  13. Jayadāman. Ed. Velankar, H D. Bombay: Haritosha Samiti, 1949
  14. Karnāṭakadalli Smārta-brāhmaṇaru: Nele-Hinnele (Kannada; Ed. Anantharamu, T R). Bengaluru: Harivu Books, 2023
  15. Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda-taittirīya-saṃhitā (with Sāyaṇa-bhāṣya). Pune: Ananda Ashram, 1900
  16. Mādhavīyā Dhātuvṛtti (Ed. Shastri, Dwarikadas). Varanasi: Prachya Bharati Prakashana, 1964
  17. Mysore Gazetteer (Vol. 2, Part 3; Ed. Rao, Hayavadana C). Delhi: B R Publishing Corporation, 1927–30
  18. New Catalogus Catalogorum (Vol. 1; Ed. Raghavan, V). University of Madras, 1968
  19. Pañcadaśī-pravacana (Kannada). Sharma, Ranganatha N. K R Nagar: Vedanta Bharati, 2003
  20. Parāśarasmṛtiḥ (with Mādhavācārya’s commentary; Ed. Candrakānta Tarkālaṅkāra). Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1974
  21. Puruṣārtha-sudhānidhi (Ed. Chandrasekharan, T). Madras: Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 1955
  22. Sayana. Modak, B R. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1995
  23. South Indian Inscriptions (Vol. 4; Ed. Sastri, Krishna H). Madras: The Superintendent, Government Press, 1923
  24. Subhāṣita-sudhānidhi (Ed. Krishnamoorthy, K). Dharwar: Karnatak University, 1968
  25. Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa (Vol. 3; Ed. Godbole, Shastri Narayana). Pune: Ananda Ashram, 1979
  26. Uttankita Sanskrit Vidya-Aranya Epigraphs (Vol. 1, Vidyaranya). Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1985
  27. Vibhūti-puruṣa Vidyāraṇya (Kannada). Ganesh, R. Hubli: Sahitya Prakashana, 2011
  28. Vidyāraṇyara Samakālīnaru (Kannada). Gundappa, D V. Hubli: Sahitya Prakashana, 2023

To be continued.

 

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Author(s)

About:

Dr. Ganesh is a 'shatavadhani' and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language.

About:

Shashi Kiran B N holds a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and a master's degree in Sanskrit. His interests include Indian aesthetics, Hindu scriptures, Sanskrit and Kannada literature and philosophy.

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சிவன். ராமன். கிருஷ்ணன்.
இந்திய பாரம்பரியத்தின் முப்பெரும் கதாநாயகர்கள்.
உயர் இந்தியாவில் தலைமுறைகள் பல கடந்தும் கடவுளர்களாக போற்றப்பட்டு வழிகாட்டிகளாக விளங்குபவர்கள்.
மனித ஒற்றுமை நூற்றாண்டுகால பரிணாம வளர்ச்சியின் பரிமாணம்.
தனிநபர்களாகவும், குடும்ப உறுப்பினர்களாகவும், சமுதாய பிரஜைகளாகவும் நாம் அனைவரும் பரிமளிக்கிறோம்.
சிவன் தனிமனித அடையாளமாக அமைகிறான்....

ऋतुभिः सह कवयः सदैव सम्बद्धाः। विशिष्य संस्कृतकवयः। यथा हि ऋतवः प्रतिसंवत्सरं प्रतिनवतामावहन्ति मानवेषु तथैव ऋतुवर्णनान्यपि काव्यरसिकेषु कामपि विच्छित्तिमातन्वते। ऋतुकल्याणं हि सत्यमिदमेव हृदि कृत्वा प्रवृत्तम्। नगरजीवनस्य यान्त्रिकतां मान्त्रिकतां च ध्वनदिदं चम्पूकाव्यं गद्यपद्यमिश्रितमिति सुव्यक्तमेव। ऐदम्पूर्वतया प्रायः पुरीपरिसरप्रसृतानाम् ऋतूनां विलासोऽत्र प्रपञ्चितः। बेङ्गलूरुनामके...

The Art and Science of Avadhānam in Sanskrit is a definitive work on Sāhityāvadhānam, a form of Indian classical art based on multitasking, lateral thinking, and extempore versification. Dotted throughout with tasteful examples, it expounds in great detail on the theory and practice of this unique performing art. It is as much a handbook of performance as it is an anthology of well-turned...

This anthology is a revised edition of the author's 1978 classic. This series of essays, containing his original research in various fields, throws light on the socio-cultural landscape of Tamil Nadu spanning several centuries. These compelling episodes will appeal to scholars and laymen alike.
“When superstitious mediaevalists mislead the country about its judicial past, we have to...

The cultural history of a nation, unlike the customary mainstream history, has a larger time-frame and encompasses the timeless ethos of a society undergirding the course of events and vicissitudes. A major key to the understanding of a society’s unique character is an appreciation of the far-reaching contributions by outstanding personalities of certain periods – especially in the realms of...

Prekṣaṇīyam is an anthology of essays on Indian classical dance and theatre authored by multifaceted scholar and creative genius, Śatāvadhānī Dr. R Ganesh. As a master of śāstra, a performing artiste (of the ancient art of Avadhānam), and a cultured rasika, he brings a unique, holistic perspective to every discussion. These essays deal with the philosophy, history, aesthetics, and practice of...

Yaugandharam

इदं किञ्चिद्यामलं काव्यं द्वयोः खण्डकाव्ययोः सङ्कलनरूपम्। रामानुरागानलं हि सीतापरित्यागाल्लक्ष्मणवियोगाच्च श्रीरामेणानुभूतं हृदयसङ्क्षोभं वर्णयति । वात्सल्यगोपालकं तु कदाचिद्भानूपरागसमये घटितं यशोदाश्रीकृष्णयोर्मेलनं वर्णयति । इदम्प्रथमतया संस्कृतसाहित्ये सम्पूर्णं काव्यं...

Vanitakavitotsavah

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Vaiphalyaphalam

इदं खण्डकाव्यमान्तं मालिनीछन्दसोपनिबद्धं विलसति। मेनकाविश्वामित्रयोः समागमः, तत्फलतया शकुन्तलाया जननम्, मातापितृभ्यां त्यक्तस्य शिशोः कण्वमहर्षिणा परिपालनं चेति काव्यस्यास्येतिवृत्तसङ्क्षेपः।

Nipunapraghunakam

इयं रचना दशसु रूपकेष्वन्यतमस्य भाणस्य निदर्शनतामुपैति। एकाङ्करूपकेऽस्मिन् शेखरकनामा चित्रोद्यमलेखकः केनापि हेतुना वियोगम् अनुभवतोश्चित्रलेखामिलिन्दकयोः समागमं सिसाधयिषुः कथामाकाशभाषणरूपेण निर्वहति।

Bharavatarastavah

अस्मिन् स्तोत्रकाव्ये भगवन्तं शिवं कविरभिष्टौति। वसन्ततिलकयोपनिबद्धस्य काव्यस्यास्य कविकृतम् उल्लाघनाभिधं व्याख्यानं च वर्तते।

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the third volume, some character sketches of great literary savants responsible for Kannada renaissance during the first half of the twentieth century. These remarkable...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the second volume, episodes from the lives of remarkable exponents of classical music and dance, traditional storytellers, thespians, and connoisseurs; as well as his...

Karnataka’s celebrated polymath, D V Gundappa brings together in the first volume, episodes from the lives of great writers, poets, literary aficionados, exemplars of public life, literary scholars, noble-hearted common folk, advocates...

Evolution of Mahabharata and Other Writings on the Epic is the English translation of S R Ramaswamy's 1972 Kannada classic 'Mahabharatada Belavanige' along with seven of his essays on the great epic. It tells the riveting...

Shiva-Rama-Krishna is an English adaptation of Śatāvadhāni Dr. R Ganesh's popular lecture series on the three great...

Bharatilochana

ಮಹಾಮಾಹೇಶ್ವರ ಅಭಿನವಗುಪ್ತ ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ವಿದ್ಯಾವಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರೆಯಲಾಗದ ಹೆಸರು. ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಶೈವದರ್ಶನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಂದರ್ಯಮೀಮಾಂಸೆಗಳ ಪರಮಾಚಾರ್ಯನಾಗಿ  ಸಾವಿರ ವರ್ಷಗಳಿಂದ ಇವನು ಜ್ಞಾನಪ್ರಪಂಚವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿಸುತ್ತಲೇ ಇದ್ದಾನೆ. ಭರತಮುನಿಯ ನಾಟ್ಯಶಾಸ್ತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅರ್ಥಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇವನೊಬ್ಬನೇ ನಮಗಿರುವ ಆಲಂಬನ. ಇದೇ ರೀತಿ ರಸಧ್ವನಿಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು...

Vagarthavismayasvadah

“वागर्थविस्मयास्वादः” प्रमुखतया साहित्यशास्त्रतत्त्वानि विमृशति । अत्र सौन्दर्यर्यशास्त्रीयमूलतत्त्वानि यथा रस-ध्वनि-वक्रता-औचित्यादीनि सुनिपुणं परामृष्टानि प्रतिनवे चिकित्सकप्रज्ञाप्रकाशे। तदन्तर एव संस्कृतवाङ्मयस्य सामर्थ्यसमाविष्कारोऽपि विहितः। क्वचिदिव च्छन्दोमीमांसा च...

The Best of Hiriyanna

The Best of Hiriyanna is a collection of forty-eight essays by Prof. M. Hiriyanna that sheds new light on Sanskrit Literature, Indian...

Stories Behind Verses

Stories Behind Verses is a remarkable collection of over a hundred anecdotes, each of which captures a story behind the composition of a Sanskrit verse. Collected over several years from...